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Short Courses

Short Course Catalogue

Short Courses

Short Course Catalogue

At EAGE we believe that it is vitally important for all Geoscientists to keep up-to-date on the latest developments in their fields. That’s why our Education programmes feature multiple formats, which are accessible by professionals with different profiles, and an expert Education Committee revises courses periodically so that EAGE’s portfolio remains a concrete tool for your professional development.

Course Catalogue

EAGE Course Catalogue covers eight main categories:


Seismic Acquisition

Seismic Processing

Surface Imaging

Integrated Geophysics​

Seismic Reservoir Characterization

Mineral Exploration

Near Surface

Environmental Geophysics

Non-Seismic Methods


Structural Geology

Carbonate Geology


Geological Modeling


Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Management

Reservoir Characterization

Rock Physics



Training and Development

Human Resources

Soft Skills

Data Science

Machine Learning 

Energy Transition

Interested in teaching for EAGE?

The instructors of our training programmes are selected by an expert Education Committee and compose an international and multidisciplinary team. Academic and industry professional can apply to become EAGE instructors by submitting one or more short course proposals (download here our Short Course Proposal Form). Approved courses are scheduled based on instructors’ availability and demand for specific topics. Instructors receive a teaching fee per day and reimbursement for travel, accommodation and meals expenses. For more information or to submit a short course proposal:

Contact EAGE Education

DisciplineSubdisciplineCourse TitleInstructorRegistration
Data ScienceMachine LearningCloud Basics for Geosciences
By Guy Holmes (TapeArk, Australia)
Guy Holmescloud high performance computing iot data management data processing1. What is the cloud?A summary of what the cloud is including an introduction to thethree most popular clouds in use today in the industry. The summarywill include a breakdown of the tools available to cloud users andsome basic concepts about cost, and a few examples of workloadsthat you should consider using the cloud for.2. The difference between Public Clouds and Private Clouds.There are fundamental differences between clouds that are Privateand Public, and numerous misconceptions about which is best, moresecure, and the most scalable. Included a few real work examples ofsystems that are Private and Public and why one should consider theoptions carefully.3. What does the cloud enable –hy use it?The cloud is such an important part of our ecosystem now and willcontinue to be in the future. The key reasons why it should be usedwill include scalability, security, evergreening, reliability, cost, and thetools enabled by the cloud systems such as AI and ML.4. Cloud Security AwarenessThere are a lot of misconceptions about cloud security. We will lookat a few security breaches, why they occurred, how to prevent them,and the additional security features available to cloud users to helpprotect their data.5. The movement to Geophysics in “eal time”n the CloudWith the advance of the SpaceX constellation, real time data streamingin remote areas –ven high volume low latency –ill becomepossible. This is going to mean survey data can be looked at, QC’d,and used essentially in real time as it arrives in a cloud account. Thisis going to move the Geo closer to the data flows, and create a moredynamic exploration system that can make decision while the surveyis still being recorded, rather than far later.6. The movement to “ig Data”rom “mall Data”he oil sector has never in its history had the opportunity to haveaccess to all of their data, all of the time. Using small sample datasets, subsets of surveys, to explore will no longer be necessary as thecloud continues to grow. This change needs a change of mindset inthe industry to both understand why this is valuable, and how totake advantage of it.Course ObjectiveIn this course, you will learn to:•escribe the major public and private cloud providers and theirrelative strengths•nderstand the difference between public and private clouds•escribe the basic global infrastructure of the cloud•ompare and contrast conventional on-premise infrastructure tothat on offer in the cloud•e better prepared to think about problem solving in a new way -with the use cloud technology 1. What is the cloud?2. The difference between Public Clouds and Private Clouds.3. What does the cloud enable –hy use it?4. Fundamental concepts of cloud based compute, storage, database,and networking5. Cloud Security Awareness6. The movement to Geophysics in “eal time”n the cloud7. The movement to “ig Data”rom “mall Data”. The concepts behind Big Data Geoscientists of all skill levels that are seeking to better understandwhy the cloud is changing the industry and how the cloud can beused in their roles to improve project outcomes. Participants should have casual familiarity with linear algebra
Data ScienceMachine LearningMachine Learning in Geosciences
By Gerard Schuster (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia)
Gerard Schusterconvolutional neural networks machine learning neural networks oil and gas semblance gathers support vector machineParticipants will learn the high-level principles of several importanttopics in machine learning: neural networks, convolutional neuralnetworks, and support vector machine. They will practice the executionof these methods on MATLAB codes (free for 30 days afterdownloading it from the MATLAB site) and Python-related codes(can be uploaded during the course). Applications include fracturedetection in photos, fault delineation in seismic images and pickingNMO velocities in semblance gathers. About 66% of the time will be for 50-minute lectures and the remainingtime will be devoted to lab exercises. The course is designed for geoscientists who have heard aboutMachine Learning and might know some details, but lack enoughknowledge to test ideas or make the next step in understanding. Thislimitation will be mitigated after a day of diligent attendance andeffort. A selective overview of important ML topics is provided andtheir practical understanding comes from MATLAB and Python-relatedexercises applied to geoscience problems. Participants should have casual familiarity with linear algebra
Data ScienceMachine LearningNew Applications of Machine Learning to Oil & Gas Exploration and Production
By Dr Bernard Montaron (Fraimwork SAS, Malaysia)
Bernard Montarondeep neural networks (dnn) exploration machine learning oil and gasThe course introduction will attempt to answer the question: Howwill A.I. change the way we work in the Oil and Gas industry inthe coming years? Looking at what is underway in other industriesand guessing what type of projects are under development in R&Ddepartments in our industry will help answer that question.Oil and Gas examples will be presented corresponding to each of theterms A.I., Machine Learning, and Deep Learning, allowing participantsto reach a clear understanding on how they differ.The course will then focus on Deep Learning (DL) and address all keyaspects of developing and applying the technology to Oil and Gasprojects.•hat is DL and how different is it from traditional neural networks?• peek at the mathematics behind Deep Neural Networks (DNN)•ypical workflow to design and develop a deep learning applicationin an E&P project•ommon challenges, difficulties, and pitfalls in deep learningprojects•oftware tools and hardware required + Cloud computing vs in-house solutions.This will be followed by live demonstrations of two DNN-based applicationsspecific to Oil and Gas upstream domains.First, we’l run software performing automatic fault identification onreleased seismic data from New Zealand basins to demonstrate howa DNN recognizes faults and how it differs from other algorithmssuch as ant tracking. Starting from default training, the DNN cangradually learn to recognize faults like the Geophysicist or StructuralGeologist. The training set constantly evolves incorporating feedbackfrom human experts.Second, the identification of resource opportunities in very largerepositories of text and image documents will be demonstrated. Thiswill be done with a deep learning application that performs contextualsearch and linguistic analysis. Unlike keyword search, contextualsearch extracts information based on its context, just like humansdo. And then linguistic analysis is run on the extracted information toidentify actionable opportunities. This list of opportunities can thenbe further evaluated by human experts.Finally, the course conclusion will summarize key learnings and answerany additional questions/queries from participants. Upon completion of the course, participants will have acquired detailedknowledge of what deep learning is exactly, how it works, andin which way it differs from traditional neural networks that havebeen used in the industry during the last 30 years. They will understandwhich domains this can be applied to and for what type ofapplications. And they will also understand what are the main challenges,difficulties, and pitfalls when developing new applications.Finally, they will have seen demonstrations of deep neural networksapplied to Exploration and Production disciplines and will be able toevaluate how useful the technology could be for their own domain. Morning session: 3 hours + breaks. Lunch break. Afternoon session:3 hours + breaks•ntroduction to the new A.I. world: What’ currently underway inR&D departments?•rtificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning: howdo they differ and examples of O&G applications• closer look at Deep Learning:•hat is it and how different is it from traditional neural networks?• peek at the mathematics behind Deep Neural Networks (DNN)•ypical workflow to design and develop a deep learning applicationin an E&P project•ommon challenges, difficulties, and pitfalls in deep learningprojects•oftware tools and hardware required + Cloud computing vs in-house solutions.•pplication to Geophysics and Geology: automatic fault identificationwith a DNN (live)•pplication to Production Engineering: detecting oil & gas opportunitieswith a DNN (live)•onclusion - Key learnings The course is designed for geoscientists, petroleum engineers, andpetrophysicists from new ventures/basin, exploration, and development& production disciplines - from early career to senior, workingin oil & gas companies or service
Data ScienceMachine LearningDeveloping Deep Learning Applications for the Oilfield: From Theory to Real World Projects
By Dr Bernard Montaron (Fraimwork SAS, Malaysia)
Bernard Montarondeep neural networks (dnn) exploration machine learning oil and gasThis course starts with the story of AI from the 1950s to the AIrevolution of the 2010s. Today’ AI business landscape and what’happening in the oil and gas are reviewed. The basic concepts ofMachine Learning are introduced, followed by a detailed presentationof neural networks (NN). NN used 25 years ago in the oilfield arediscussed, then participants experiment a NN trained in 12 secondsto read handwritten digits. Deep convolutional NNs (DNN) are thenstudied and applications to salt mapping and fault detection in seismicdata discussed and demo’d. Finally, participant teams are askedto design DNNs and to define how to create the data sets for twooilfield projects: sweet spot detection in Bakken field, USA, and GWCprediction in seismic data of undrilled carbonate pinnacles offshoreCentral Luconia, Malaysia. Upon completion of the course, participants will have acquired detailedknowledge of what deep learning is exactly, how it works, andin which way it differs from traditional neural networks that havebeen used in the industry during the last 30 years. They will understandwhich domains this can be applied to and for what type ofapplications. And they will also understand what are the main challenges,difficulties, and pitfalls when developing new applications.Finally, they will have seen demonstrations of deep neural networksapplied to Exploration and Production disciplines and will be able toevaluate how useful the technology could be for their own domain. Part 1:• little history of artificial intelligence (A.I.)•he AI revolution in the last ten years•oday’ AI business landscape•AFAMs and free online AI software development tools•hat’ happening with AI in the Oil & Gas business?•inear Regression as an introduction to Machine LearningPart 2:• little more on linear regression•eural Network basics•ogic gates (NOT, OR, AND) as neural networks…nd implications•nderstanding ML buzz words: gradient descent, backpropagation,generalization, etc.•he mathematics of NNs and ML (linear algebra)•mage classification/pattern recognition with a neural network(NN-DIGITS)•N-DIGITS training demoPart 3:•iscussion on NN from the past in the oilfield industry, and handwrittendigit classification•he Deep Learning revolution: how did it happen?• very complex NN: the human eye and the visual cortex•ntroduction to deep convolutional NNs (CNNs)•ow CNNs make it possible to develop a micro-paleontology MLsoftware•ree download AI tools (ATOM, Keras, TensorFlow) running on agamer laptop PC•N/CNN demos with these tools using an online data set fromKagglePart 4:•iscussion on self-driving cars ML software, and adversarial attacks•dversarial examples for the human brain: optical illusions andperception errors•iscussion on the salt classification paper•mportant considerations on accuracy metric•eview of a CNN-based system for picking faults in seismic data•oftware demo of “yFault”•ntroduction to part-5 teamwork exercises: do your own ML projectPart 5:•eam exercises and presentations This course is intended for technical staff and managers interestedto understand what Deep Learning is and how it can be applied tooilfield projects (all disciplines).in-house-true
Data ScienceMachine LearningData Science for Geoscience
By Prof. Dr Jef Caers (Stanford University, United States)
Jef Caerscase study climate correlation cross-plotting decomposition deposits earthquake environmental extrapolation facies flooding fourier geostatistics groundwater modeling uncertaintyThis course provides an overview of the most relevant areas of datascience to address geoscientific challenges and questions as theypertain to the environment, earth resources & hazards. The focuslies on the methods that treat common characters of geoscientificdata: multivariate, multi-scale, compositional, geospatial and space-time. In addition, the course will treat those statistical method thatallow a quantification of the “uman dimension”y looking atquantifying impact on humans (e.g. hazards, contamination) andhow humans impact the environment (e.g. contamination, landuse). The course focuses on developing skills that are not covered intraditional statistics and machine learning courses.The material aims at exposure and application over in-depth methodologicalor theoretical development. Data science areas coveredare: extreme value statistics, multi-variate analysis, factor analysis,compositional data analysis, spatial information aggregation,spatial analysis and estimation, geostatistics and spatial uncertainty,treating data of different scales of observation, spatio-temporalmodeling. The focus lies on developing practical skills on real datasets, executing software and interpreting results. The objectives of this course are to:•iscover fields of data science typically not covered in traditionalcourses•dentify a combination of data science methods to address aspecific geoscientific question or challenge whether related tothe environment, earth resources or hazard, and its impact onhumans•se statistical software on real datasets and communicate theresults to a non-expert audience Part I: Extremes•tatistical analysis of skew data•xtreme value statistics•pplications: size and magnitude distributions (volcanoes,diamonds, earthquakes), extreme flooding, weather, climate.Part II Compositions•ompositional data analysis•pplications: geochemical data in Earth ResourcesPart III Causality•ultivariate analysis of compositional data•pplication: pollution, water quality, anomaly detection, EarthResources prospecting.Part IV Geospatial analysis•ayesian Aggregation of geospatial information•eights of Evidence method•ogistic regressionPart V spatial uncertainty•patial analysis, geostatistics & spatial uncertainty•pplication: interpolating remote sensing data, pollution data,groundwater/reservoir modeling•ariogram Analysis•riging•ultiple-point geostatistics Geoscientists and geo-engineers who wish to expand theirknowledge on data scientific methods specifcally applicable toearth science type data sets: skew data, compositional/multivariate,
Data ScienceMachine LearningGeophysical Data Analysis in Julia, including Machine Learning
By Dr Rajiv Kumar (Schlumberger, United Kingdom)
Rajiv Kumar
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(0002914–15 Sep 2022)
machine learning julia open source geophysics imaging inversion pre-processing denoising data visulalization quality controlThe main objective of this course is to bridge the gap between R&Eand non-R&E people working in the industry together by providinga learning platform to non-R&E people where they can understandand develop their own research ideas and give them life. Even R&Epeople can learn the power of open source languages such asJULIA in testing and writing small prototypes while utilizing parallelcomputing capabilities. The audience will learn and develop smallresearch prototypes on seismic data processing concepts such asdenoising, interpolation, modelling and inversion. The secondobjective is to demonstrate to the audience that they can furtherexplore the world of machine learning in JULIA while connectingthe conventional and ML techniques to stay up-to-date with theadvancements in the field of signal processing. Upon completion of the course, participants will learn:•ow to build and test small research prototypes in JULIA forday-to-day task•o use and understand signal processing tools available in opensource and how to adapt these tools as per the research requirements•o perform parallel computing in JULIA to scale small researchprototypes to a large-scale problem The course is completely hands-on delivered through various jupyternotebooks with a couple of presentations in between.•ntroduction to JULIA- loading JULIA, IDE and various other environments- introduction to variables, types, functions, data structure,control flow- introduction to parallel computing in JULIA•arious data preprocessing tasks such as- loading LAS, Excel, text, SEGY format in JULIA,- organizing the data- cleaning and visualization•utorial on designing different seismic preprocessing tools such as- denoising- interpolation- deconvolution•sing Synthetic VSP dataset, setup and perform- full-waveform inversion- reverse time-migration•uilding machine learning model to perform denoising on VSPdatasets Geoscientists who are interested to create, design and learnprogramming to develop their ideas from imagination to real-worldsolutions. This course will demonstrate to them the power of opensource programming languages such as JULIA, and enable them touse it in there day to day tasks while testing it in real-time to furtherextend it to be ready to deploy on the production scale. The audience is expected to have prior knowledge of basic signalprocessing concepts such as correlation, deconvolution and Fouriertransforms and seismic processing
Data ScienceMachine LearningMachine Learning for Geoscientists with Hands-on Coding
By Dr Ehsan Naeini (United Kingdom)
Ehsan Naeinicase study data science facies classification fault detection machine learning rock physics wellsMachine learning has been around for decades or, depending onyour view, centuries. By applying machine learning to our workflows,e.g. petrophysics, rock physics, seismic processing and reservoircharacterization, we can bring speed, efficiency and consistency overtraditional methods of data analysis. In addition, we can implementa range of machine learning techniques together with optimizationalgorithms and statistics to identify new patterns and relationshipsin multi-dimensional datasets. This has the potential to enhance ourquantification and strengthen our interpretation of the subsurface;ultimately leading to a more accurate predictive outcome.In this course we attempt to layout the reality of artificial intelligence,machine learning, deep learning and big data. We cover the basicprinciples of machine learning and some of the most widely usedalgorithms. We continue by explaining a workflow for implementinga typical machine learning application in practice and to qualitycontrol and interpret the outcomes. Following this we shift focus toGeoscience and show various examples in which machine learningalgorithms have been implemented for well- and/or seismic-basedapplications. Given the hands-on coding nature of this course,trainees will code up a classification and a regression algorithm forlithology/facies and well log prediction correspondingly. Throughoutthese exercises the trainees will become familiar with the flexibilityof coding machine learning in Python (although we do not intend toteach Python in details in this course) as well as familiarization withpublicly available Python libraries for machine learning and analytics.The course is for entry level practitioners and involves hands-oncoding, hence having some Python skills is an advantage but notessential. 1. Use Python;2. Understand various machine learning algorithms, concepts andterminologies;3. Learn how to analyse data in big scales;4. QC for machine learning applications;5. Extend their newly learned knowledge to their day to day practiceand implement their own ideas. 1. Introduction;2. Machine Learning Principles;3. Machine Learning in Practice;4. Exercise 1: ML for classification;5. Exercise 2: ML for regression.6. Exercise 3: Application of ML on seismic data The course is designed for basically everyone, however, an introductorylevel of analytics expertise is useful. There are no prerequisites, but basic Python knowledge can be
Data ScienceMachine LearningIntroduction to Machine Learning (ML) for Geophysical Applications
By Dr Jaap C. Mondt (Breakaway, Netherlands)
Jaap C. Mondtartificial intelligence classification clustering deep learning machine learning non-linear regressionBusiness contextMore and more Machine Learning (ML) will play a role not only insociety in general but also in the geosciences. ML resorts under theoverall heading of Artificial Intelligence. In this domain often theword “lgorithms”s used to indicate that computer algorithms areused to obtain results. Also, “ig Data”s often mentioned, indicatingthat these algorithms need an enormous amount of input datato produce useful results.Many scientists mention “et the data speak for itself”hen referringto machine learning, indicating that hidden or latent relationshipsbetween observations and classes of (desired) outcomes canbe derived using these algorithms. A clear example is in the fieldof Quantitative Interpretation. For clastics we have a reasonableunderstanding in which cases known rock properties expressed inequations can be used to predict say pore fluids. But for carbonatesit is often an enigma and we have to resort to statistical relationships.Then ML enters into the game. If we have many wells with knowndrilling results, the algorithms can derive non-linear relationshipsbetween seismic observations and the known well results (supervisedlearning). But sometimes it is already useful if an algorithm can defineseparate classes (say seismic facies), which then still need to beinterpreted (unsupervised learning).The courseThe aim of this 1-day course is to introduce how Machine Learning(ML) is used in geophysical applications. It will give an understandingof the “orkflows”sed in ML. The used algorithms can be studiedseparately using references. Power-point presentations will introducevarious aspects of ML, but the emphasis is on computer-based exercisesusing open-source software. The course concerns a genuinegeophysical issue: predicting lithology and pore fluids, including fluidsaturations. The input data are Acoustic and Shear Impedances, Vp/Vs ratios and AVA Intercept and Gradients. The exercises deal withpreconditioning the datasets (balancing the input classes, standardization& normalization of data) and applying several methodsto classify the data: Bayes, Logistic, Multilayer Perceptron, SupportVector, Nearest Neighbour, AdaBoost, Trees. This for supervised aswell as unsupervised applications. Non-linear Regression is used topredict fluid saturations. The objectives of this course are to:1. Have a good understanding on how and when MLcan be appliedeffectively in the geosciences;2. Realize the workflows that can be used in ML;3. Solve the main issue of ML, namely choosing the appropriatealgorithm and its parameters. This course is meant for all those who are interested in understandingthe impact Machine Learning will have on the Geosciences andthen specifically the impact on seismic and non-seismic data acquisition,processing and interpretation. Hence, geologists, geophysicistsand petroleum and reservoir engineers, involved in exploration anddevelopment of hydrocarbon fields, but also those working in shallow-surface
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionGeophysical Monitoring of CO2 Storage
By Prof. Martin Landrø (Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Norway)
Martin Landrø4d acoustic electromagnetism flooding gravity inversion mapping rock physics saturation time-lapseThe course discusses various methods for monitoring subsurfaceinjection of CO2. Specifically, the following topics will be covered:•ock physics related to injection of CO2 into porous rock•ime-lapse seismic methods•ravity and electromagnetic methods•aturation and pressure effects•arly detection of leakage•apping overburden geology and identification of potentialweakness zones•ield examples•ell integrity issues•sing gas leakage as a proxy to study potential leakage of CO2•aboratory experiments of CO2 flooding including acoustic measurements Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to understandpossibilities and challenges related to geophysical monitoringof a CO2 injection process. The course is designed for geoscientists working in oil companies,service companies and research organizations. Participants should have knowledge of basic geophysics and
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionAn Introduction to Offshore Wind
By Jeroen Godtschalk (BLIX Consultancy BV, Netherlands)
Jeroen Godtschalk
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(0001227–28 Jul 2022)
offshore wind energy transition geoscience renewables offshoreThe purpose of this course, is to provide the participants with a comprehensiveintroduction into offshore wind, it’ development and therole of the geoscientist in this process.During the course, the participants are taken through all the basicbuilding blocks of the offshore wind development. We start thecourse with an introduction into the various options for renewableenergy and why offshore wind is often the preferred option. Weconclude this course by discussing the installation issues for offshorewind farms, but also touch upon maintenance issues. In between wecover all the basic steps of development, with a slight focus on themore geoscience related work such as site investigation work, settingthe correct parameters for the offshore campaign and foundationselection.After having completed the course, the participants should have abetter understanding of how offshore wind farms are being developedand what factors are influencing the design and the businesscase of such farms. The participant should than also have a clear ideaon what the role of the geoscientist in this process is. This should givehim/her also some possible guidance on the career opportunities inthis field, should he/she decided to move away from oil & gas andpursue a career in offshore wind.In order to participate in this course, no real knowledge of offshorewind is mandatory. A basic understanding of geophysical andgeotechnical methods will help, but the course can also easily befollowed with limited knowledge of these subjects.If required the course can be tailored to suit the needs of the group,with either more or less detailed presentations. We are happy todiscuss any preferences upfront. Upon completion of the course, the participants will be able to:1. Better understand the process and the steps of an offshore windfarm development.2. Have a clear understanding of the role of the geoscientist in thisproces.3. Understand what factors are determining the final design andlayout of an offshore wind farm.4. Have a good overall idea of offshore wind 1. Offshore wind basics•verview of renewable energies•hy offshore wind•he physics behind offshore wind•hat is needed for an offshore wind farm (how to decide on asuitable site)•equired permits2. Site selection•hat stakeholders do we have before site selection•eabed occupation/UXO•rid connection to shore•orts/logistics hub•eospatial issues•esktop studies on geology, archaeology, morphodynamics3. Data collection•etOcean Data –ind, waves and currento Methodologyo Why needed and how is it used•eophysical data –eabed and below seabaedo Methodologyo Why needed and how is it used•eotechnical data –eabed and below seabedo Methodologyo Why needed and how is it used•orphodynamics•ntegration into a ground model4. Foundation types•ifferent types of foundation•hich foundation suits which project and why•ro’ and Con’ for each foundation5. Transport & Installation•nstallation of different foundations•able installation•ypical issues for installation•aintenance The course is designed for anybody who wants to learn more aboutoffshore wind development and who is keen to learn to understandthe basic building blocks of offshore wind. A basic understanding of geophysical and geotechnical methodswill help, but the course can also easily be followed with limitedknowledge of these subjects. In addition, basic understanding ofphysics will help to understand the overall idea of wind energy andits associated
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionGeological History of CO2: Carbon Cycle and Natural Sequestration of CO2
By Dr Alain-Yves Huc (UPMC - Paris VI University, France)
Alain-Yves Huccarbonates climate environmental geochemistry geomorphology paleoclimate sediment weatheringWith respect to the current genuine public concern regarding the anthropogenicincrease of Green-House gases, intensive research and technologydevelopment focus on the capture and underground storage of industrialquantities of CO2 concentrated in emissions from combustion sources. Atthe global scale, the withdrawal of the CO2 diluted in the atmosphere reliesessentially on natural bio-geological processes. As a complement to the studyof the involved factors in the modern terrestrial eco-system, the geologicalperspective provides the opportunity to investigate these processes and theirconsequences at different time scales.During Earth’ history the atmospheric CO2 has been subjected to extensivechanges in term of absolute quantity and relative concentration. From ageological perspective, the current anthropogenic driven alteration of theEarth’ atmosphere actually occurs during a period of low atmospheric CO2(Ice-House). A large part of the remaining time intervals of the Phanerozoicwere apparently dominated by Green-House conditions. The latter situationresulting from the high concentration of atmospheric CO2, due to volcanicand metamorphic degassing associated with the long term tectonic activity ofPhanerozoic megacycles. The subsequent decrease of atmospheric CO2 at theend of the megacycles is interpreted by a negative feedback involving the CO2driven silicate weathering which consumes CO2.Based on the CO2 sourcing(tectonic degassing) and CO2 sinking (sedimentation of carbonates and organicmatter), the most popular model depicting the change of atmospheric CO2during the Phanerozoic are based on the Berner’ GEOCARBSULF approach.The resulting curve which exhibits the long-term change is, to some extent,comforted by the comparison with the estimates of past PCO2 values providedby different indicative proxies.However some available data depart from the model and high resolution seriesof proxies suggest that high amplitude and high frequency changes in atmosphericCO2 were occurring at a much lower time scale. Implications include thepossibility to better explain short term climatic events such as the Late Ordoviciancontinental-wide glaciation, to reconsider the significance of brutal eventsof injection of CO2 in the atmosphere as a result of intra-plate volcanism andtheir environmental responses and geochemical record in oceanic sediments(e.g.the Permo-Trias Siberian traps), to revisit the so-called climatic optima suchas the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene, and the necessity to improve ourassessment of the kinetics of the retroaction loops controlling the level of CO2in the atmosphere.The main reservoir of carbon is the Mantle. It is the likely repository of a largepart of the CO2 which was initially present in the primitive atmosphere of theEarth, following accretion and degassing, and from which it was probablyprogressively withdrawn through the process of subduction. The two othermajor reservoirs of carbon are the sedimentary carbonates and organic matter.The progressive build up of these reservoirs correspond to a long-term sinkfor around 80 bar of atmospheric CO2. It should be noted that for both ofthem the processes involved in the transformation of CO2 into carbonates andkerogen are biologically driven and that the efficiency of these processes tendsto increase as biological evolution proceeds Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•lace the current atmospheric CO2 concentration in a geological perspective;•rovide an overview of the methods used to approach the value of the pastatmospheric CO2 content;•eview the change in the carbon cycle throughout geological time: Evolutionof source and sink. •ools for monitoring changes in atmospheric CO2 throughout time.•he carbon cycle.•rocesses of natural sequestration of atmospheric CO2: the carbon sinks.•tmospheric CO2 change on planet Earth:- from Precambrian to Phanerozoic;- the Cenozoic;- the Pleistocene ice house an inaccurate analogue for the current CO2 depar-ture from natural values.•volution of carbon sinks, the instrumental role of biology. Anyone interested in the current atmospheric CO2 concern and the evolutionof the biogeochemistry of the Earth’ system. Basics geology and chemistry (biology).in-house-trueenergy-transition-true
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionGeological CO2 Storage
By Andreas Busch*, Eric Mackay*, Florian Doster* (*Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom), Martin Landrø (NTNU, Norway), Philip Ringrose (Equinor & NTNU, Norway)
Andreas Busch, Eric Mackay, Florian Doster, Martin Landrø, Philip Ringrosecarbonates climate environmental geochemistry geomorphology paleoclimate sediment weatheringModule 1: Introduction•ntroduction to CCS•ntroduction to saline aquifer storage•O2 storage project designModule 2: Reservoir concepts and storage requirements•eservoir/seal systems for pore space storage•torage capacity•O2 PVTModule 3: Flow mechanics (part I)•ingle phase flow in porous media - Darcy•ingle phase flow in porous media - Mass conservation•wo-phase transport - Pore scale processesModule 4: Flow mechanics (part II)•wo-phase transport: Introduction to relative permeability, capillarypressure•wo phase transport: Non-linear processes•ink to dynamic reservoir modelling/simulationModule 5: Storage risks: Seals, assessment, geomechanics and geochemistry•eochemical requirements to safely store CO2•eomechanical requirements to safely store CO2•eal integrityModule 6: CCS monitoring and risk assessment•ell integrity and subsurface monitoring•eabed/shallow subsurface monitoring•Near) Surface and Marine monitoringModule 7: Public perception, policy and emerging/niche CO2 storageoptions•O2 for enhanced oil production•merging/niche options to store CO2•ublic perception and policy All those interested in the geoscience and engineering aspects orcarbon capture and
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionValue of Information in the Earth Sciences
By Prof. Jo Eidsvik (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)
Jo Eidsvikdecision making geostatics inversion modeling monitoring noise reservoir characterization rock physics seismic attributes sensors signal processing uncertaintyWe constantly use information to make decisions about utilizing andmanaging natural resources. How can we quantitatively analyze andevaluate different information sources in the Earth sciences? What isthe value of data and how much data is enough?The purpose of the course is to give participants an understandingof the multidisciplinary concepts required for conducting value ofinformation analysis in the Earth sciences. The value of information iscomputed before purchasing data. It is used to check if data is worthits price, and for comparing various experiments.The course will outline multivariate and spatial statistical models andmethods (Bayesian networks, Markov models, Gaussian processes,Multiple point geostatistics), and concepts from decision analysis (decisiontrees, influence diagrams), and then integrate spatial statisticalmodeling, geomodeling and decision analysis for the evaluation ofspatial information gathering schemes.Unlike the traditional value of information analysis, this course focuseson the spatial elements in alternatives, uncertainties and data.A coherent approach must account for these spatial elements, andclearly frame the decision situation - we demonstrate a workflow forconsistent integration and apply this in a series of examples. In thiscourse we discuss and show examples of the value of imperfect versusperfect information, where the likelihood model of geophysicalmeasurements is less accurate. We also discuss the value of total versuspartial information, where only a subset of the data are acquired. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:- Frame a spatial decision situation with alternatives, experimentsand spatial geomodelling;- Use a workflow to conduct value of information analysis in spatialsituations;- Interpret and compare the value of information of different spatialexperiments. •otivation for value of information analysis in the Earth sciences;•ecision analysis and the value of information;- decision making under uncertainty, value functions, utility, decisiontrees, influence diagrams, value of perfect information,value of imperfect information- run simple demo example / project on computer•tatistical modeling and spatial modeling;- Bayesian networks, Markov models, Gaussian processes,non-Gaussian spatial processes. An important element here isconditioning to data (Bayes rule) and the spatial design of experiments,which will be important for the value of informationanalysis later- run demo / project on computer•alue of information analysis for spatial models;- Framing of spatial decision situations and opportunities for spatialdata gathering- Partial and total spatial information / imperfect and perfect spatialinformation- Coupled or decoupled spatial value function- Develop a workflow for value of information analysis in spatialapplications- run demo / projects on computer•xamples of value of information analysis in various energy transitionapplications: petroleum, mining, CO2 sequestration, hydrology,groundwater and wind energy production;- Description of decision situations, statistical modeling, data gatheringopportunities- Run demo / project on computer The course is designed for students, researchers and industry professionalsin the Earth and enviromental sciences who has interestsin applied statistics and /or decision analysis techniques, and inparticular to those working in petroleum, mining or environmentalgeoscience applications.Participants should have knowledge of basic probability and statistics,and mathematical calculus. Although it is not essential, it helpsto know basic multivariate analysis and decision analysis or optimization.The participant must be willing learn statistical topics and earthscience applications, and appreciate the multidisciplinary approachto solving quantitative
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionMedium and Low-Grade Geothermal Energy: Geoscience and Geomechanics
By Grant Wach (Dalhousie University, Canada), Maurice Dusseault (University of Waterloo, Canada)
Grant Wach, Maurice Dusseaultenergy climate change carbon neutrality basin analysis climate continental margin environmental geomechanics geothermal groundwater salt sequence stratigraphyGlobally, countries are striving to gain control of the climate crisisby achieving carbon neutrality through significant and sustainedreduction of fossil fuel based energy production. Access to energyremains vital however, so the importance of developing renewableenergy technologies is paramount. Geothermal energy is a keyopportunity to achieving the energy transition due to low carbonemissions, reliable energy production and relatively low operatingcosts. Determining the economic viability of geothermal energy iscontrolled by geographical and geological constraints, so thoroughinvestigation of the subsurface geology is necessary in the evaluationof geothermal energy potential.Steam-based geothermal systems have been well-studied and developedsince the first small successes in Lardarello in 1911. However,geothermal steam for direct power generation is a rarity around theworld, and extremely site-specific. The Iceland successes are well-known, as are fields such as Cerro Prieto and the Geysers, but >98%of the land mass of the world does not have High-T (steam) systems.In this course, we will discuss global energy challenges and the energytransition, geological influences on geothermal energy sources,and focus on medium and low-grade systems in permeable reservoirs,and in hot dry rock at depth. We will also discuss geothermalenergy storage, geothermal fluids, HOR stimulation, and relatedtopics. Our intent is to leave you with a broad understanding of thethermal energy beneath our feet, how we might exploit it, and howwe might even store heat in a “hermal Battery”or power generation,or for habitat heating. Geothermal energy may fit comfortablywith renewable energy sources (hydro, wind, sun) but integratingdifferent combustion-free energy sources required careful planningand good geological and mechanical engineering. 1) Understand basic geological concepts with influence geothermalenergy systems2) Discuss the viability of developing a geothermal energy system ina given area (exercise)3) Discuss the different types of geothermal systems4) Consider basic risks of geothermal system development in a givenarea5) Understand basic geomechanical/engineering considerations ofgeothermal energy systems 1. Introduction:a. Geothermal systems (petroleum system elements format):i. High-T Steam systems - dry steam, wet steam ii. SedHeatsystems - hot aqueous fluids in porous permeable strata iii.HOR systems - Hot (& warm) Dry Rock systems with minimalpermeabilityb. Low energy, high energy systems: i. Lowest energy systems aregeothermal gradient systems ii. Highest energy systems aresupercritical water systems at moderate depth iii. Intermediateenergy systems in hot areas of sedimentary basinsc. Temperate and Northern climates: i. Extreme need for heat insub-arctic and artic climate zones ii. Use of heat for power,habitats, agricultured. Tropical and Arid Environments: i. Extreme need for cooling inhot-dry and hot-humid climates ii. Combining geothermal andother renewable energy sources for cooling2. Clastic Reservoirs:a. Typical petrophysical properties (e.g. geopressured aquifers inthe GOM)b. Adequate flow and energy flux3. Carbonate Reservoirs:a. Carbonate systems, naturally fractured strata (dual porositysystems)b. Hot fluids from oil production4. HOR - Hot Dry Rock:a. EGS - Enhanced Geothermal Systemsb. Naturally fractured systems and stimulationc. Advective and conductive heat flux5. Saline Aquifers and Salt6. Data collection and requirementsa. Thermal information: T (z, t...), specific heats, porosities, thermalconductivities, etc.b. Fluid flux information: reservoir characteristics, well stimulationeffectsc. Geochemistry of fluids and scale potential in SedHeat andHigh-T systemsd. Microseismic surveillance, Deformation monitoring, Pressures...7. Geotechnical Constraints and Hazardsa. Fluids managementb. Hydraulic fracture stimulationc. Induced seismicity -11 T, b.p effects8. Energy Storagea. Heat storage in shallow geo-repositories (<1000 m)b. Heat storage in deep geothermal heat reservoirsc. Integrating geothermal energy with compressed air energystorage This course is designed for students and professionals in the geologicaland engineering fields who are interested in learning aboutthe fundamentals of geothermal energy systems and modern energychallenges. Participants should have prior knowlegde of basic geology and/
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionGeology and Engineering of Carbon Capture and Storage
By Grant Wach (Dalhousie University, Canada), Maurice Dusseault (University of Waterloo, Canada)
Grant Wach, Maurice Dusseaultccs carbon reservoir storage co2 energy climate change carbon neutrality energy transition basin analysis climate environmental  geomechanics engineeringGlobal leaders and decision-makers are well aware of the climatecrisis and many are taking action to mitigate the effects of climatechange by reducing CO2 emissions. However, the demand for energyremains high, especially in areas that require heating and cooling,and currently much of the world’ energy is derived from hydrocarbons.Discussion of the ‘nergy Transition’ which is the shift fromfossil-fuel based energy to renewable sources, seems ubiquitous inrecent years, the transition is not as simple as that. Ensuring reliableaccess to energy in all jurisdictions is crucial, as are economic considerations.Combining a switch to renewables with anemission-reduction measures such as Carbon Capture and Storage isnecessary in the path to carbon neutrality.Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) refers to the capture of emittedCO2 from the atmosphere, transport, and eventual storage in geologicalstructures. The basic concept is simple, but the execution iscomplex; it requires the identification of high-emission sites, detailedbasin analysis to determine suitability and safety for carbon storage,engineering, economic analysis, and risk analysis before an informeddecision to develop a CCS site can be made. This course will overviewcurrent energy challenges (the WHY), and geological and engineeringbasics of CCS (the HOW). Students will leave with a betterunderstanding of this mitigation opportunity and how decisions canbe made to pursue CCS in a given area. Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:1) Understand the need to reduce atmospheric CO2 and the effectsof climate change to the global climate system2) Understand the basic concepts involved in reservoir characterization3) Discuss suitability of developing CCS sites, considering proximityto emission source, geology and engineering4) Discuss social and economic considerations of CCS5) Discuss case studies of existing CCS operations PART 1: Geoscience1. Introduction: Anthropogenic Atmospheric CO2 and the Need toReduce Emissionsa. Radiative Forcing of CO2 & Climate Changeb. Energy Challenges and the Energy Transitionc. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Concept Introd. The role of CCS in the path to Carbon Neutrality2. Geological Considerations: Basin Suitabilitya. Seismicityb. Depthc. Fault intensityd. Geothermal regimese. On vs. Offshore Basinsf. Accessibilityg. Existing Petroleum/ Coal Resourcesh. Industry Maturity3. Identifying a Prospective Sitea. Reservoir/Seal Criteria4. Detailed Site Characterizationa. Structural and Stratigraphic Modelsb. Injectivityc. Containmentd. Capacity5. Economic Evaluations6. Risk7. Monitoring8. Decision to Develop9. Types of CCS Facilitiesa. Case Study of operational CCS sites10. Wrap-Up and ExercisesPART 2: Engineering1. Introduction: The Engineering Context for CCSa. Sequestration Options: Carbon or CO2?b. The Behavior of CO2c. Capacity Estimationd. Injection Strategiese. Reservoir integrity Issuesf. Monitoring and Optimization2. Sequestration Optionsa. The Various Storage and Sequestration Mechanismsb. The Need for Interim Storage –alt Caverns, other…. CO2 as a Sequestration Mediumd. Direct Injection of Carbon-rich Solids –H4 Harvesting3. The Behavior of CO2a. The Various Phases of CO2 with Pressure and Temperatureb. Properties of CO2: Density, Viscosity, Solubility in H2Oc. Impure CO2 impacts4. Capacity Estimatesa. Pore Volume Access Conceptsb. Porous Media Flow InstabilitiesGravity instability, Capillary instability, Viscous fingering, Channelling5. Injection Strategies –ater-saturated Assumptionsa. Vertical Well and Horizontal Well Optionsb. Down dip or Up-dip injection? Gravity Effectsc. Pure? Pre-Mixed? Cyclic Water/CO2 Injection?6. Reservoir Integrity –ellbores, Abandoned Wellsa. Leakage Mechanisms, Corrosion…. Monitoring and Optimizationa. PVT & Q monitoringb. Deformation Monitoring –nSAR, Tilt, Othersc. Microseismic Monitoring This course is designed for students and professionals in the geologicaland engineering fields who are interested in learning about thefundamentals of carbon capture and storage and modern energychallenges. Participants should have prior knowledge of basic principles of geologyand/or
Energy TransitionEnergy TransitionRock Physics, Geomechanics and Hazard of Fluid-Induced Seismicity
By Prof. Serge Shapiro (Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany)
Serge Shapiroearthquake elasticity geothermal induced seismicity mechanics monitoring pore pressure sedimentPart 1 (20% of the course) includes: Rock physical and poroelasticfundamentals of fluid-induced seismicity (including microseosmicity):Elastic waves, Elastic Anisotropy, Poroelastic waves, Slow wave anddiffusion, Fluid flow in rocks, Seismic attenuation, Reservoir properties:permeability, porosity, fluid viscosity, fluid elasticity, rock elasticity.Part 2 (20% of the course) includes: Geomechanics and physicsof faulting and earthquakes and principles of the microsiesmicmonitoring method: faulting types, faulting criteria, tectonic stresses,rock criticality, detection, location, earthquake mechanisims,moment tensors and magnitudes of earthquakes, microseismiccommon receiver gathers, microseismic reflection imaging.Part 3 (40% of the course) includes: Various types of inducedseismicity: production-induced earthquakes, injection inducedearthquakes, geothermal systems, hydraulic fracturing, waste waterinjection and carbon sequestration; interpretation of microseismicdata for reservoir stimulation and hydraulic fracturing: types ofinduced seismicity, pressure diffusion, rt-plots, triggering fronts,back fronts, hydraulic diffusivity, event density, event rate, hydraulicanisotropy, hydraulic non-linearity, hydraulic fracturing, fracturepropagation, volume balance, fluid loss, stimulated volume, correlationswith hydrocarbon production, data quality control, estimationof hydraulic properties of rocks, fracture efficiency, enhancedpermeability, permeability of fracture, permeability of rocks.Part 4 (20% of the course) includes: Fundamentals of assessmentof induced-seismicity hazard (injection, post-injection and disposaloperations): Seismicty statistics, Gutenberg-Richter law, Intereventtimes, Seismogenic index, Rupture propagation, Bounds of magnitudefrequencies, Maximum expected magnitude, triggered andinduced earthquakes, factors controlling hazard and requirements formicroseismic monitoring; Hazard of various types of induced seismicity:hydraulic fracturing, geothermal systems, waste water injectionand carbon sequestration, hydrocarbon production, water reservoirs. •ock physics and geomechanics of induced seismicity:Poroelastic phenomena and seismic wavesStress, pore pressure and rock failureGeomechanics of tectonic and induced earthquakes•he method of microseismic monitoring:Observation systems, detection and location of (micro)earthquakesMicroseismic wavefields and imaging•eismicity, pressure diffusion and hydraulic fracturing:Various types of induced seismicityModeling of fluid-induced seismicitySeismicity during a fluid injectionSeismicity after a termination of a fluid injectionHydraulic properties of reservoirs and induced seismicityHydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirsSeismicity induced by hydraulic fracturingNon-linear diffusion and seismicity in unconventional reservoirs•azard of induced seismicity:Rates and magnitudes of fluid-induced earthquakesSeismogenic indexStatistics of large magnitudesHazard of various types of induced seismicity The course is targeted to Geophysicists, Geologists, Petrophysicits,Reservoir Engineers, Graduate and Postgraduate Students, Researchers,Interpreters. Graduated (bachelor level) in geology, or geophysics, or physics, ormathematics, or petroleum engineering, or
EngineeringPetroleum EngineeringBasic Well Test Analysis
By Saad Ibrahim (Petro Management Group Ltd., Canada)
Saad Ibrahimbasin analysis case study clay core correlation cross-plotting decision making deconvolution fractures horizontal wells hydrates injection permeability production workflowsWell testing of oil, gas, and water wells is the technology that hasbeen effectively used since the start of the oil business over centuryago. Well test analysis/interpretation is considered one of the mosteffective reservoir management tool to help in maximizing well prodivity,enhance the expexted ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons, andalso in devicing the fileds development plans. This courses offers thefoundation of this techniques which covers the theory in a concisefashion and the emphases is on the practical applications using numeriousactual well tests data and the application of the analysisresults (using commercial software) for field development. 1. Provide good understanding of what goes on inside the black box(software) before starting well testing.2. Provide apprecaition of well test design before commencing withtesting to ensure conclusive results are ontained.3. Offering step-by-step on how to analyze various types of welltesting with emphasis on understanding data quality4. Well test analysis is a mix of science and art which is foundationof well test interpretation •eview of the flow equations: Equation of state, Darcy and continuityequation; Common flow geometry•imensionless parameters: definitions and Type Curve use/applications•oundary conditions: infinite, Pseudo- steady state and steadystate•olution of the diffusivity equation: (class problem)•uild-up test analysis: Principle of Superposition, Horner Plot; averagereservoir pressure (MBH) method (class problem); Reservoirboundaries and channel analysis•ellbore skin factor and partial penetration (class problem)•ellbore storage: use of type curves and (class problem)•raw-down testing: Application and test analysis and equivalenttime; Reservoir Limit Testing (case study - fractured basement)•ydraulically fractured wells•racture characterization (frac. Half-length, conductivity and orientation) Engineers and geologists who are or will get involved in well testingand its applications for field development. All levels are welcome Some background in reservoir and production engineering will
EngineeringPetroleum EngineeringIntroduction to Heavy Oil: Genesis, Properties, Distribution, Recovery Technologies and Upgrading
By Dr Ali Shafiei (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)
Ali Shafieigeomechanics heavy oil offshore viscous oilThe course explores heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and bitumen, alsoknown as viscous oil (VO), resource development including itsgenesis, physical and chemical properties, resources, reserves, geographicaldistribution, production, transport, upgrading, refining,future technology developments, and environmental impacts. Thereare over 9 trillion barrels of heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and bitumenoil known to exist in the world. By comparison, originally there wereabout 4.7 trillion barrels of conventional oil of which almost 1.2trillion barrels have been processed to date. Canada and Venezuelaalone possess over 30% of the world endowment. Since 1990 theVO in situ production industry has seen a number of startling advances.New production technologies, combined with developments inwaste management, upgrading, monitoring and transportation havechanged expectations. Now, it is a widely held view that 15-20% ofthe world’ VO resource base can be profitably produced with currenttechnology; this ratio will rise as further technological advances areimplemented. By 2030, VO’ contribution to the daily oil productionwill be about 17%. These figures show the importance of VO developmentsin the near future to fulfill a major part of the growingglobal demand for fossil fuels.A summary of the main topics along with a brief description of theviscous oil resource, its size, production technology advances duringthe last few decades and environmental issues related to developmentof this vast resource. The terminology used herein, includingterms alluding to VO physical properties (e.g. tar sands, heavy oil, extra-heavy oil, bitumen) and terms used to classify VO into categoriessuch as known or assumed resources (OOIP), technical reserves, andproven, probable or possible reserves are defined. Chemical compositionand physical properties play crucial roles in production technologyselection as well as upgrading and refining technology selection.Chemical and physical properties of some VO’ are presented andthe differences are discussed. Some of the proposed mechanisms forVO emplacement, followed by the genesis, physical and chemicalproperties and reservoir characteristics of the some major VO fieldsin several countries are outlined. The nature and development ofdifferent in situ production technologies including scientific and engineeringchallenges such as understanding geomechanics impactson production or finding other heat sources for steam generation areaddressed. Upgrading, refining techniques and transportation usedin the VO industry is also highlighted. The environmental sustainabilityof VO development is also discussed. Upon successful completion of the course the attendants will be ableto:•escribe genesis, physical, and chemical characteristics, and geographicaldistribution of heavy oil resources around the world;•xplain the major commercialized and emerging heavy oil recoverytechnologies;•ecall some examples of heavy oil recovery operations;•escribe major heavy oil upgrading technologies. This course deals with:•enesis, physical, and chemical characteristics;•eographical distribution of heavy oil resources around the world;•ajor heavy oil recovery technologies and recovery mechanisms;•eomechanics effects;•xamples of heavy oil recovery operations;•eavy oil upgrading technologies;•nvironmental issues;•echnological challenges.The course has foundation level, but is comprehensive. A more detailedoutline can be provided on request (depending on level andduration of the course and also background of the course participants).The course can be delivered in 1-2 days or in 4-7 days withmore details including problem solving sessions. The course is intended for engineers, geoscientists, and technologistsactive in E&P industry involved in exploration, production, transportation,upgrading and environmental management. Knowledge of the oil industry and a good sense of physics and chemistrywill be
EngineeringPetroleum EngineeringPetroleum Engineering for Non-engineers
By Mr Saad Ibrahim (Petro Management Group Ltd., Canada)
Saad Ibrahim2d  3d and 4d case study decision making drilling economics faults flooding fluid geophones horizontal wells injection lithology marine seismic monitoring mwd offshore oil and gas reservoir characterization reservoir engineering reservoir modeling sandstone shale time-lapseThis course is designed to provide non-engineering petroleum industrytechnical professionals with a thorough overview of most keyaspects of petroleum engineering technology and its applications forupstream, midstream, and downstream stages. surprisingly, nearly70% of the staff of the oil companies are non-engineers (supportstaff) that have limited knowledge of what goes on the operation ofexploration, development, and production. The course will allow thesupport staff to understand the tasks performed by the engineersand how to improve cooperation and efficiency of the operation.The course addresses engineering issues ranging from initial involvementwith explorationists, discovery evaluation and field development,production optimization, and all the aspects of well drilling.The use of seismic survey in the exploration stage will be explainedhow to locate oil and gas prospects and estimate expected reserves.The step-by-step process of drilling a well is discussed for onshoreand offshore operations. The sessions will focus on relevant andpractical issues; including real case studies and presenting video clipsto illustrate the process of decision making and the risks involvedin each operational step. The impact of drilling for oil and gas andhydraulic fracturing on the environment and to mitigate risks will bediscussed, which has been a concern in many parts of the world.A group discussion on this subject is usually of great interest tothe attendees. During the production history of oil and gas fields,operational problems are frequently expected. It is the responsibilityof the engineers to use proper diagnostic tools to define the causeof the problems and to device the remedial actions. The applicationof horizontal wells including Multi-stage Fracturing and the latestindustry techniques of applications will be illustrated. Another tool tomaximize production is the use of artificial lift (down-hole pumps). Areview of the different methods of artificial methods and applicationswill be discussed. Also, the techniques of Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR) will discussed, including the screening of various EOR schemesand how it will be executed. The cost and benefits for EOR applicationswill be discussed. Well and field decommissioning, when operationis no longer profitable and described for onshore and offshore.It is critical that no negative impact on the environment as a resultof decommissioning. Finally, the process of economic evaluation isdiscussed including related risks (technical, economical, and political)and uncertainty for various projects. Upon successful completion of the course the attendants will havelearned:•bout an overview of the industry and how the roles of differentprofessional disciplines are integrated to generate developmentplans•ow a well is drilled and completed to have save operation andwell control•bout production problems; diagnoses and remedy•bout economic evaluation to justify field development Day 1:- Overview; role of petroleum engineers and the main componentsof field development- Reservoir Geology•ypes of reservoir rocks•ain elements of petroleum reservoirs- The Drilling Rig; equipment and operation (onshore and offshore)Video clip- Well completion techniques including Hz wells- Formation evaluation techniques•ud logging, coring, and open hole logging•ock and fluid propertiesDay 2:- Porosity and permeability definitions & measurements and fluidsampling- Oil and gas reserves determination•olumetric and material balance methods•ecline analysis and empirical methods- Reservoir delineation & development•ield development considerations (case study)•ypes and applications of artificial lift•orizontal well applications- Production operations and optimization•ell performance and well testing (video clips)•perational problems; diagnoses and remedy- Enhanced Recovery Mechanism•ypes of EOR schemes (video clips)•lanning and designing of waterflood projects- Unconventional Oil and Gas•ight formations and the application of Multi-stage Frac of HzWells (MFHW’) –ideo clips- Decommissioning and Related Environmental Matters•ow wells are abandoned; on-offer and off-shore•ase studies/video clips- Economic evaluation•nput data for economic analysis; risks and uncertainty This course is aimed at non-engineering professionals and most supportstaff involved in the oil industry and also for junior exploitationengineers/technologists, and geologists. No prerequisites are
EngineeringReservoir ManagementUncertainty in Reservoir Management
By Prof. Peter King (Imperial College London, United Kingdom)
Peter Kingalgorithm production reservoir reservoir modeling sand uncertaintyThe course will provide an introduction into many of the conceptsbehind uncertainty in reservoir modelling. It will start with a descriptionof the origins of uncertainty with a mixture of heuristictreatments and more formal mathematical approaches. It will thendevelop the appropriate mathematical ideas and tools for estimatinguncertainty in practical reservoir modelling. Finally, some ideas forhow uncertainty can be managed will be explored. The aim of this course is to provide some of the basic statistical toolsfor quantifying uncertainty and some simple strategies for dealingwith it. The course will be given by formal lectures and some simple exercises. The course is primarily addressed to reservoir engineers involved inbuilding reservoir models but could also be of interest to productionengineers who have to deal with the consequences of uncertainty inreservoir
EngineeringReservoir ManagementReservoir Management for Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
By Prof. I. Yucel Akkutlu (Texas A&M University United States)
I. Yucel Akkutluanisotropy fractures geochemistry reservoir modeling shale unconventionalThe field of reservoir characterization and engineering has beenevolving quite fast during the last 10 years. This has been due toincreasing interest in the unconventional resources in North America.New tools and analysis techniques have been developed. This courseintroduces unconventional oil and gas resources as a reservoir to thepracticing engineers. The emphasis is on the tight gas/oil formationsand organic-rich source rocks, in particular shale.The course provides in-depth discussions on fluids storage, phasechange, and transport for reservoir evaluation and development.New discussions related to nano-confined fluids will be included, newreservoir storage mechanisms as sorbed gas and capillary-condensedfluids will be introduced. Hydrocarbon in-place calculations are presented,including new-pore-scale considerations. A new method isintroduced to assess the liquid potential of the source rocks.Laboratory techniques are discussed for the characterization of unconventionalformations. The course will help engineers understandtransient flow regimes associated with horizontal wells completedwith hydraulic fractures, and analyze the production data using variousanalytical and simulation methods.A new production history-matching and optimization method willbe introduced using a real shale gas well production data. Field casestudies will be introduced to discuss the field development includingeconomic and environmental evaluation of horizontal wells withmulti-stage fracturing.Environmental considerations during the development of an unconventionalfield will be discussed including issues related to groundwaterprotection. The need for the utilization of large volumes ofwater for drilling and hydraulic fracturing will be discussed. Wastewater disposal operations in USA and the induced seismicity will bediscussed.The course helps students understand the unconventional reservoirphysics and improve their business performance by developing moreaccurate reservoir models. The aim of this course is to:1. Assess, characterize and classify unconventional resources;2. Predict the petro-physical and geochemical quantities relevant tounconventional resources assessment;3. Predict hydrocarbon in-place including gas, wet-gas, condensateand oil windows;4. Evaluate the relative accuracies of unconventional reserve estimates;5. Perform rate-transient and pressure transient analysis for horizontalwells with hydraulic fractures and predict effective fracturedimensions contributing to production;6. Formulate a field development plan for an unconventional resources. Introduction•nconventional oil and gas resources: Tight gas/oil and sourcerock (CBM, organic-rich shale) characteristics;•nconventional resources in North America, their oil/gas productiontrends and reserves;•hat is shale, and what makes shale a hydrocarbon resource?;•esource-reservoir duality and the concept of reservoir creation.Fundamentals•ource rock burial, diagenesis, catagenesis;•ulti-scale pore structure development in source rocks;•ffective porosity in unconventional resources;•ulti-scale oil/gas storage mechanisms in shale;•ccurrences of hydrocarbons in organic and inorganic pore networksin source rocks;•hase change and capillarity in organic nanopores;•olumetric calculations for shale: gas, wet-gas, condensate andoil;•aterial balance calculations for source rocks;•low and other mass transport mechanisms for shale gas and oilreservoirs;•tress-dependent shale permeability and its modeling;•low calculations for shale using Wasaki’ permeability model fororganic-rich shale;•ulti-phase flow considerations in source rocks.Reservoir Evaluation and Characterization for Unconventional Resources•outine core analysis;•pecial core analysis;•rganic matter classification: bitumen vs. kerogen;•erogen type and maturity;•ydrocarbons recovery potential from kerogen;•ntegration of core-data and log-data- TOC estimation- Free and sorbed-phase fraction analysis;•xamples on shale core measurement data and analysis;•xercise on predicting shale gas and shale oil permeability;Pre-frac Injection Test•ressure fall-off (or DFIT) Test Analysis and Interpretation;- Typical pressure transient and its signatures;- Breakdown pressure, instantaneous shut-in pressure, fractureclosure pressure;- Analysis of the pressure fall-off data for flow capacity, leak-offtype and presence of fractures;•xample calculation of the breakdown pressure;•xample calculation of the overburden stress using Eaton’ equation.Geomechanics•racture evolution in ductile and brittle formations;•riffith’ theory of brittle rock failure;•aboratory measurements;•tress-strain diagrams;•opular geo-mechanical concepts for stimulation decisions;•xample decision making on vertical locations for perforations incased-cemented hole;•xercise calculation of the four elastic moduli using uniaxial testdata.Transient Flow Regimes and Production Analysis•eservoir flow regimes and flow patterns;•ressure evolution during transient flow;•roduction rate transient signatures in flow patterns:- Vertical wells with hydraulic fracture- Horizontal wells with and without hydraulic fracture- Horizontal well with multiple hydraulic fractures;•roduction rate transient analysis (RTA) methodsType-curves- Straight line methods, A√ method- Flow simulation requirements for the unconventional reservoirs- Empirical methods, e.g., Arps, Duong, stretched exponentialdecline;•otal fracture surface area calculation using RTA with dynamicmatrix permeability;•orkflow for engineering analysis of horizontal wells with hydraulicfractures;•xample type-curve analysis.Unconventional Field Case Studies•ingle-well fracture interference study using Barnett data;•ingle well fracture surface area calculations using RTA;•istory-matching Marcellus shale gas well- Impact of the number of transverse fractures on future recovery;•istory-matching Eagle Ford shale gas well;•istory-matching Bakken shale oil well;• shale gas well completion optimization- Procedure of calculating hydraulic fracture economics: NPV, IRR,DROI- Number of fracture stages/clusters- Transverse fracture spacing- Fracture propped-length;• tight gas field case study in Canada. The course is designed for reservoir engineers and earth scientistswho would like to learn the unconventional reservoir engineeringconcepts, terminology and analysis tools.Participants should have a geology, geophysics, or petroleum
EngineeringReservoir ManagementFundamentals of Petroleum Reserves under PRMS 2018
By Victor Alexei Huerta Quiñnes (Universidad Nacional de Ingenierí, Peru)
Victor Alexei Huerta Quiñnesanalogy decision making decline curve analysis eur material balance reserves resourcesThis course allows an in-depth look at the framework, classifications,categorization and applications of Petroleum Resources ManagementSystem (PRMS). Participants will gain a solid understandingof this valuable resources management tool, including insight intothe latest updated version (PRMS 2018), as well as, the use of someindicators to reserves management.In addition, this course will provide training in production forecastingand reserves estimation for conventional and unconventional reservoirs,by diverse methods such as field and reservoir analogy, volumetricestimations, material balance equation and rapidly applieddecline models favored by the industry for routine forecasting.Recommended methodology will be based on the resolution anddiscussion of some case studies to illustrate and clarify definitions. The aim of this course is to:1. Enhance background, criteria and technical skills of participantsto classify, categorize and estimate reserves and resources in oiland gas assets;2. Make a brief and concise review and keep up with the latestdefinitions and regulations of reserves and resources definitions;3. Provide some guidelines and “ules of thumb”or a quick assessmentof an oil and gas assets;4. Show that PRMS is a powerful management tool that is widelyused in the industry. Part I: PRMS Project Framework•RMS project background•ajor principles and key guidelines in PRMS•ow PRMS captures risk and uncertainty•ssessing and reporting unconventional resourcesPart II: Classification and Categorization of Reserves and Resources•018 Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS)•omparison of SEC and PRMS guidelines•efinitions of Prospective and Contingent Resources•eserves Categories: Proved, Probable y Possible•ncremental vs. cumulative approach•ndicators of Reserves ManagementPART III: Overview of Reserves and Resources Estimates in Conventionaland Unconventional Reservoirs•ell / Field Analogy Applications•olumetric Estimations•aterial Balance Applications•orecasting performance with traditional decline-curve analysis(DCA) and allied tools (Numerical Reservoir Simulation) and understandtheir relative strengths•mpirical and semi-theoretical decline models including Arps, Fetkovich’,Stretched Exponential, Power-Law, Transient Linear Flow,and Duong.Part IV: Production Forecasts and Reserves Estimates in UnconventionalReservoirs•raditional vs Modern Decline Curve Analysis•mpirical and semi-theoretical decline models including Arps, Fetkovich’,Stretched Exponential, Power-Law, Transient Linear Flow,and Duong•iagnostic plots for flow regime identification, pressure normalizationof rate data, recommended workflow for pressure-rate-timeproduction data analysis•eveloping Probabilistic Production Type Well curves•pplications for tight oil and gas reservoirsPart V: Oil and Gas Assets Value and Decision Analysis•raditional Deterministic Cash Flow Analysis: NPV, IRR, Pay Out, PIR•ecision trees concepts and calculation of expected monetaryvalue (EMV)•onte Carlo simulation in estimating profitability indicators: ExpectedNPV and Financial Risk estimation This course is intended for technical staff, including managers, whoare or will be responsible for reserve/resource estimation, or who willbe responsible for the reporting of reserves and other resources tosenior levels within the company or externally. Technical disciplinesmay include:•eservoir Engineers•eoscientists•roduction Engineers Participants should have a prior knowledge of basic concept ofreservoir engineering, reservoir characterization and reservoir management.Recommended reading1. J. Lee. Notes Course PETE 652: Deterministic Reserves Evaluation.2. John D. Wright. Oil and Gas Property Evaluation, John D. Wright,Thompson-Wright, LLC, August 20153. R. Weijermars. Notes Course PETE 664: Petroleum Project Evaluationand Management.4. C. Cronquist. Estimation and Classification of Reserves of CrudeOil, Natural Gas and Condensate.5. J. Lee. Oil and Gas Reserves: The New SEC Reporting Rules6. J. Etherington & R. Seager. Managing your Business using PRMSand SEC Standards7. Securities and Exchange Commission: Modernization of Oil andGas Reporting; Final Rule8. Oil and Gas Reserves Committee SPE. 2018 Petroleum ResourcesManagement System (PRMS)9. SPE/WPC/AAPG. Guidelines for the Evaluation of PetroleumReserves and Resources10. T. Ahmed. Reservoir Engineering Handbook11. G. Rojas. Ingenierí de Gas y Gas Condensado12. C. Smith, G. Tracy & R. Farrar. Applied Reservoir Engineering,Vol. I y II13. L. Dake. The practice of Reservoir Engineering14. B. Craft & M. Hawkins. Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering15. M. Economides. Petroleum Production Systems16. M. Carlson. Practical Reservoir Simulation17. R. Lee & D. Katz. Natural Gas Engineering: Production and Storage18. H. Beggs. Gas Production Operationsin-house-true
EngineeringReservoir ManagementUpscaling and Artificial Intelligence Based Proxies for Uncertainty Assessment of Reservoir Production
By Prof. Dr Dominique Guéillot (Texas A&M University, Qatar)
Dominique Guéillot
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(0002230 Aug — 2 Sep 2022)
3d anisotropy capillary pressure carbonates case study facies flooding fluid fractures geocellular geostatistics groundwater history-matching oil and gas permeability reservoir characterization reservoir engineering reservoir modeling uncertainty workflowsThe aim of the course is to recap main techniques required to buildan integrated reservoir model and to explain different potentialworkflows for field development and/or history matching processes.This course will include explanations of upscaling techniques and theuse of proxies for uncertainty assessment of production forecasts.All these methods will be illustrated and applied to the Brugge case. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand the fundamentals of Geostatistics and Spatial Modeling•alculate a variogram•now what are the principal of Kriging•now the main methods of Geostatistical Simulations for modelingheterogenous and fractured reservoirs•e familiar with the main Upscaling technics used in reservoirsimulators•now how to use proxy models for assessing Uncertainty in ProductionForecasts•pplication to the Brugge field will be given to illustrate the methodology. Integrated Geological Modeling and Reservoir SimulationGeostatistics and Spatial ModelingVariogramKrigingHistory Matching PrinciplesGeostatistical SimulationsLimitations of KrigingGeostatistical SimulationWhat do we want from a simulation?Principles of stochastic modelingPixel based modelObject based modelSequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS)Random CharacterProperties of SGSScaleCell Sizes & RangesIndicator FormalismSequential Indicator SimulationUpscalingWhy Upscaling is Needed?Orders of magnitudes for the Geological Model and the ReservoirSimulatorsIs it necessary to take into account all heterogeneities ?Impact on CPU costCan we replace heterogeneities by homogeneity?Is it right to call “quivalent”he upscaled permeabilities?The upscaling problems considered hereUpscaled Values Depends on FlowUpscaling of Geo-cellular ModelsUpscaling in Integrated StudiesUpscaling of porosityUpscaling of absolute permeabilityDifferences between additive and non additive variablesSingle phaseDarcy’ lawSingle Phase Flow around WellsWhat happenS in 1 D?Arithmetic AverageHarmonic AverageGeometric AverageWeighted Arithmetic AverageWeighted Harmonic AverageWhat happens for a layer cake model?Upscaling generates anisotropyHow to handle barriers & faults?How to handle fractures?Uncertainty Assessment in Production ForecastIntuitive WorkflowRecommended WorkflowArtificial Neural Network as ProxyApplications on case studiesApplication to Brugge field The course is primarily addressed to reservoir geologists and reservoirengineers involved in building reservoir models but could also be ofinterest to production engineers who have to deal with the consequencesof uncertainty in reservoir performance. Darcy’ law, basic probability and
EngineeringIOR/EORIntroduction to Waterflood Management
By Ibrahim Saad (Petro Management Group Ltd., Canada)
Ibrahim Saadeor reservoir characterization rock wettability bubble point pressure reservoir drives injection requirements waterflood stages rcovery factor sweep efficiency numerical modelingThis course provides a complete review of all aspects of waterfloodschemes being the most proven, lowest cost, and applicable to varioustypes of reservoirs to EOR. A group exercise will be offered Classproblems which will be offered to the course attendees to emphasizethe technical concepts taught. Upon completion, participants will be able to:1. Understand data acquisition required to properly evaluate waterfloodpotential2. Evaluate geological and engineering risks to implement waterfloodprojects3. Establish the knowledge to present the cost and the benefit of thewaterflood project to obtain managerial and regulatory agencies4. Learn how to estimate the Expected Ultimate Recovery (EUR) ofthe waterflood project and prepare production forecast 1: Introduction to Waterflooding and E.O.R2: Reservoir Characterization3: Reservoir Drives and Reserves Estimate4: Waterflood planning and Design Engineers and geologists who are or will get involved in designingand monitoring waterflood projects. Technical level from junior andsenior staff. Some background in reservoir engineering will be
GeologyCarbonate GeologyAn Overview of Carbonate Diagenesis: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of Carbonate Reservoir Quality
By Dr Dave L. Cantrell (Cantrell GeoLogic and Stanford University, United States)
Dave L. Cantrellcarbonates case study diagenesis integration interpretation lithology permeability reservoir characterization sequence stratigraphy thin sectionDiagenesis includes all chemical, physical and biological changes, modificationsor transformations undergone by a sediment after its depositionand during and after its lithification (AGI Glossary of Geology), exclusiveof metamorphism. Carbonate rocks and sediments are especially susceptibleto post-depositional modifications because of the high chemicalreactivity of carbonate minerals; these carbonate minerals react quicklywith natural waters in order to bring the water into equilibrium with thehost carbonate sediments and rocks (Moore 1989). These rock-waterinteractions can have a dramatic effect on the original (depositional)reservoir quality framework of a sediment, and can either create, modify,or completely destroy reservoir quality. Given that these alterations canoccur at any time during the history of the sediment, understanding andpredicting carbonate diagenesis and its impact on reservoir quality canbe a very challenging - and at times frustrating! - process.While the full gamut of carbonate diagenetic processes is extensive,a simplified list of the most commonly encountered processesincludes: cementation, dissolution, dolomitization, compaction(including pressure solution and stylolitization), fracturing, and thein situ growth of other minerals in the sediment. These processescan be considered within a context of diagenetic environments,including the marine environment, the mixing zone, the meteoricenvironment, and the burial environment. A consideration of thetypical conditions, processes and products for each of these diageneticenvironments provides a method for both understanding andpredicting carbonate diagenesis.The relationship between reservoir quality and diagenesis is complexand variable, and at times the various diagenetic processes work incomplementary and overlapping ways. For example, movement ofundersaturated water through a sediment may partially dissolve thesediment to create or enhance porosity; as dissolution continues,however, waters may become saturated to the point where they cementporosity in adjacent sediments, to produce a tightly cementedcarbonate rock with abundant moldic porosity but little permeability.Likewise dolomitization may occlude, redistribute, create or enhanceporosity, based on a number of different factors.This workshop provides an in-depth overview of the nature andextent of common diagenetic alterations in carbonates and theirimpact on reservoir quality; it then uses a series of case studies to illustratehow the principles described in this workshop can be appliedto understand and predict reservoir quality in several outcrop andsubsurface examples. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•dentify common diagenetic products in carbonate rocks andsediments•nderstand the processes that gave rise to these products•redict the likely location and effect of diagenesis in the subsurface•ppreciate the role that diagenesis plays in producing final reservoirquality IntroductionDiagenesis in Carbonate Rocks and Sediments –hat is it, and whyshould you care?Aspects of Diagenesis: Recognition of Processes and Products•ementation•issolution•olomitization•ompaction and Pressure Solution•racturing and OthersOrganizing PrinciplesDiagenesis in Time and Space - the Importance of Diagenetic EnvironmentsImplications for Reservoir QualityCase History #1: Dolomitization in Middle Eastern Carbonate RocksCase History #2: Introduction to Karst Systems and ReservoirsCase History #3: An Introduction to Microporosity in Middle EasternCarbonate RocksConclusions The course is designed for geoscientists and engineers looking toenhance their understanding of and ability to predict carbonatediagenesis. Some knowledge of carbonates and the main challenges of reservoirquality prediction and modeling in carbonates would be
GeologyCarbonate GeologySedimentological Characterization of Carbonate Rocks
By Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislin (Badley Ashton, United Kingdom)
Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislin
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(0004411–14 Oct 2022)
carbonates reservoir characterization sedimentology stratigraphyMore than 60% of the world’ oil and 40% of the world’ gas reservesare held within carbonate rocks. An understanding of thesewill ultimately help improve sedimentological facies and reservoirquality prediction while reducing uncertainties with respect to reserveestimates and potential oil/gas recovery. The first part of thiscourse provides an understanding of the fundamentals of carbonatesedimentology, together with the skills required to characterize andinterpret carbonate rocks, in order to establish an understandingof their depositional environment and implications for reservoir geometryand extents. In detail, the course offers an insight into theenvironmental, biological, physical, chemical and climatic controlson the carbonate factory, enabling facies analysis. In addition, sequencestratigraphical methods and their application will be coveredin the second part of the course to provide all the tools needed toreconstruct the sedimentological architecture at the field scale. Thesefactors help reduce uncertainties associated with the prediction ofgeometries and lateral heterogeneity within carbonate reservoirs.Part A: in order to appreciate the evolution and development ofcarbonate sediments, a basic understanding of the chemical, biologicaland physical processes involved in their formation is essential.The first part of this course outlines the controls on carbonateproduction (the carbonate factory), and the impact of carbonateproducers on carbonate accumulation and hence implications forcarbonate body geometries. It considers the key textural (Dunhamclassification), mineralogical, compositional and fabric/sedimentarystructure observations necessary to help evaluate and interpret carbonaterocks. Carbonate deposition is controlled by a wide rangeof internal and external factors, including the light, temperature,energy levels, salinity and nutrient availability. Understanding thesefactors provides a better perspective on the nature and distributionof carbonate sediments, and thus, enhances reservoir descriptionand the subsequent construction of more robust depositionalmodels. The effects of the environmental controls on carbonateproduction, wherever possible, will be illustrated with observationsfrom modern day analogues.Part B: To fully understand carbonate systems, it is necessary toappreciate the larger scale depositional settings within which theydevelop. An understanding of the tectonic setting and the depositionalgeometry of a carbonate platform is vital in developingaccurate depositional models. These aspects, together with thetypes of carbonate accumulations and their applications, will befully addressed in this course. Finally, the principles of sequencestratigraphy, its importance in subsurface carbonate reservoircharacterisation and the tools and techniques required for the applicationof sequence stratigraphy will all be covered. Overall, thesefactors aid in the prediction of the sedimentological heterogeneityexpected at the large-scale, and hence, the interpretation of thereservoir architecture. Upon completion of the course, participants will have:• good understanding of a carbonate system, including the majorcontrols on carbonate production;•n appreciation of the heterogeneous nature of carbonate sedimentsand how this may impact predictability variations withinthe subsurface;•n understanding of the techniques used to apply a sequencestratigraphic framework in a typical carbonate succession, andhence the impact on reservoir quality prediction. The course will be organised into two sessions:Part A: The carbonate system - “arbonates are born not made”•he mineralogy of carbonates;•he composition of carbonate rocks: skeletal vs non-skeletal allochems;•lassification of carbonate rocks;•he controls on carbonate production;•he carbonate factory - the impact of carbonate producers on thecarbonate accumulation geometry;•ypes of carbonate accumulations;•pplied carbonate facies analysis;•ypical carbonate facies observed in core and thin-sections;•he key to identifying carbonate depositional environments.Part B: Sequence stratigraphy applied to carbonate reservoirs•ntroduction to the basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy;•arbonate record and sea level;•ethods used to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework;•rediction of the sedimentological heterogeneity and interpretationof the sedimentological reservoir architecture.Each section will be accompanied by example case histories andexercises. This course is designed for petroleum geologists, geoscientists,petrophysicists and engineers involved in exploration and productionof carbonate plays. Although previous knowledge on carbonate sedimentology is notnecessarily required, participants should have some knowledge
GeologyCarbonate GeologyCarbonate Reservoir Characterization
By Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislin (Badley Ashton, United Kingdom)
Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislincarbonates reservoir characterization sedimentology stratigraphyThis carbonate reservoir characterization course focuses on theanalysis of carbonate depositional textures and the subsequentdiagenetic modifications as the main controls on the pore systemevolution, heterogeneity and complexity. The intricate inter-relationshipof the depositional and burial history can be unravelled toallow the prediction of reservoir facies, and hence, aid reconstructionand development of three-dimensional reservoir models. This coursedemonstrates the value of understanding pore system evolution as apart of large-scale volumetric assessments and the development ofcarbonate reservoirs.Reservoir quality in carbonate successions is often defined by thestorage capacity, flow potential (ie. porosity and permeability respectively,measurements that are often acquired during conventionalcore analysis) and connectivity of pores (recorded as the pore-throatradius distributions during special core analysis). The interplay betweenthese quantifiable factors (including sample-scale heterogeneities)is inevitably linked to the original depositional characteristicsof the carbonate sediments, together with their susceptibility topost-depositional diagenetic alteration, which results in the ultimatelycomplex pore system. Therefore, the classification of individualpore types will be detailed in this course, with their primary depositionalor secondary diagenetic origin being discussed in contextwith sedimentological and stratigraphic models in order to underpintheir spatial relationships and potential connectivity. In addition, thecharacterization of micrite textures will be discussed to illustrate theirimpact on the microporosity, factors that are particularly important toconsider in tight unconventional reservoirs.The depositional controls on reservoir properties that will be takeninto consideration in this course include the texture, grain size, clayand matrix content as well as the type and quantity of allochems. Therelationship between dissolution processes that result in an enhancementof the pore system, cementation processes that reduce thepore volume and the resultant connectivity and fluid flow pathwayswill be assessed to constrain the dominant diagenetic controls on thereservoir properties. In addition to this, the process of dolomitisationwill be scrutinised in order to determine if and how this process enhancesand/or reduces reservoir properties.Integrating the key controls on reservoir quality within the sedimentologicalframework enables the establishment of a conceptualreservoir architecture model, which can be used to assess and predictthe vertical and lateral variations in porosity and permeability at thereservoir and/or field scale. This course outlines how to conceptuallybuild a reservoir architecture model, which in turn can be used to aidreservoir modelling.This course will be accompanied by a series of in-class exercises, whichwill emphasize the integration of the various datasets, providingparticipants with experience in carbonate reservoir characterization. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•dentify the different pore types, their interconnectivity and hencethe impact on permeability;•etermine how specific sedimentological parameters and diageneticprocess impact reservoir quality;•nderstand sample heterogeneity and its impact on reservoirquality data;•pscaling of reservoir quality data to aid prediction at the field scale. The course will be organised into three sessions:Part A: Reservoir quality analysis - What it is and how to approach it•efinition of reservoir quality;•ow to characterise reservoirs.Part B: Pore types and connectivity•oncepts and definitions;•he carbonate pore type classification(s);•ermeability and pore-throat radius distributions;•anipulating reservoir quality data;•ntroduction to advanced reservoir quality tools.Part C: Controls on reservoir quality•ample heterogeneity;•edimentological controls;•iagenetic controls;•eservoir architecture construction.Each section will be accompanied by examples from case historyexercises. This course is designed for petroleum geologists, geoscientists,petrophysicists and engineers involved in exploration and productionof carbonate plays. Although previous knowledge on carbonate sedimentology is notnecessarily required, participants should have some knowledge
GeologyCarbonate GeologyCarbonate Reservoirs – Sedimentology, Diagenesis and Reservoir Quality Evaluation
By Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislin (Badley Ashton, United Kingdom)
Laura Galluccio, Catherine Breislincarbonates reservoir characterization sedimentology stratigraphyAn understanding of the depositional origin, together with thepost-depositional modifications, is imperative to the successful explorationand production of carbonate sediments, which hold morethan 60% of the world’ oil and 40% of the world’ gas reserves.Although carbonate rocks present complexity, this course is designedto understand the basic principles of carbonate sedimentology,diagenesis and reservoir characterization while making it straightforwardto grasp and integrate the information.The first part of this course is designed to develop skills in characterizingcarbonate rocks and identifying and interpreting theirdepositional settings. This includes an insight into the controls onthe carbonate factory (such as environmental, biological, physical,chemical and climatic controls), an in-depth examination of the classificationof carbonate textures and gives an understanding of thelarger scale tectonic setting and depositional geometry of carbonateplatforms. The principles of sequence stratigraphy and its importancein the subsurface characterization of carbonate reservoirs will also bediscussed. All these factors are crucial in predicting the geometry ofcarbonate reservoirs in the subsurface and developing accurate depositionalmodels, which in turn will have an impact on the predictionof the reservoir architecture.The second session of the course will focus on the diagenetic processesand products that have an impact on carbonate reservoirs.This will encompass the identification of the products and processesinvolved within meteoric, marine and burial diagenetic environments,using both petrographical and geochemical analytical techniques,while taking into consideration their implications on the resultantreservoir properties. In addition to this, the process of dolomitisationand the proposed models of dolomite formation (including expectedbody geometries) will be discussed, illustrating whether this processbenefits or hinders reservoir quality. This section will also review thevarious analytical techniques utilised in identifying the origin of thediagenetic phases and thereby aiding the prediction of their potentialvertical and lateral extent.The third and final part of the course will analyse the pore systemevolution, integrating the intricate link between sedimentology anddiagenesis to aid prediction of reservoir properties at the field scale.The classification of pore types will be discussed, with their primarydepositional or secondary diagenetic origin being determined inorder to understand their spatial relationships relative to the sedimentologicalframework and hence their potential connectivity. Thecharacterization of micrite textures will also be discussed to illustratetheir impact on microporosity, an important factor to consider whencharacterizing unconventional tight reservoirs. This course outlineshow to conceptually build a reservoir architecture model by integratingthe key controls on reservoir quality within the sedimentologicalframework, which in turn can be used to assess and predict thelateral and vertical variations in porosity and permeability at the largescale.This course will be accompanied by a series of in-class exercises, whichwill emphasize the integration of the various datasets, providingparticipants with experience in carbonate reservoir characterization. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand a carbonate system, including the major controls oncarbonate production, describe carbonate sediments and theirassociated heterogeneity, and understand the techniques used toapply a sequence stratigraphic framework in a typical carbonatesuccession;•nderstand the various diagenetic processes that carbonatesediments are predisposed to and how to identify the origin ofresultant products and hence their impact on reservoir quality.Knowledge on the analytical techniques used to characterize diageneticproducts will also be gained;•etermine how sedimentological parameters and diagenetic processimpact reservoir quality in order to aid prediction at the fieldscale. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy - Days 1-2Part A: The carbonate system - “arbonates are born not made”•ineralogy, composition and classification of carbonate rocks;•he carbonate factory and controls on carbonate production;•pplied carbonate facies analysis with core-based and thin-sectionexamples;•he key to identifying carbonate depositional environments;Part B: Sequence stratigraphy applied to carbonate reservoirs•ntroduction to the basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy;•he carbonate record and sea level variations;•ow to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework;•rediction of the sedimentological heterogeneity and interpretationof the sedimentological architecture.Diagenesis - Day 3Part A: The diagenetic realm•ntroduction to diagenetic processes;•iagenetic environments;•olomites and evaporites;•uilding a paragenetic sequence;Part B: Analytical techniques•dvanced microscopy analyses including cathodoluminescenceand scanning electron microscopy;•eochemical analyses such as trace elements, stable isotopes andfluid inclusion thermometry.Reservoir quality assessment - Days 4-5Part A: Reservoir quality analysis - what it is and how to approach it•efinition of reservoir quality;•ow to characterize reservoirs.Part B: Pore types and connectivity•oncepts and definitions;•he carbonate pore type classification(s);•ermeability and pore-throat radius distributions;•anipulating reservoir quality data. The course is targeted at all geoscientists, including petroleum geologists,petrophysicists and petroleum engineers involved in explorationand production of carbonate plays. Although previous knowledge on carbonate sedimentology is notnecessarily required, participants should have some knowledge
GeologyStratigraphyIntegrated Methods for Deep-Water Reservoir Characterization
By Dr Jon R. Rotzien (Basin Dynamics, LLC, United States)
Jon R. Rotziendeposits facies gravity marine outcrop sedimentology sequence stratigraphy shallowDeep-water depositional systems form some of the largest petroleum reservoirson Earth and represent the frontier of oil and gas exploration. However,deep-water depositional systems remain the least well understood becausesediment gravity flows, including turbidity currents and hybrid and debrisflows, are both infrequent and difficult to predict and monitor, setting themapart from sediment transport processes occurring on mountain tops andshallow marine settings. Therefore, modern seismic data and, in particular,deep-water outcrops provide prime sources of stratigraphic data used to riskdrilling targets and build reservoir models at every phase in the upstream explorationand production process. This course focuses on sub-bed-scale andfield-scale architectural elements in deep-water depositional systems and howthey affect the main risks in deep-water E&P across the value chain: reservoirpresence, deliverability, seal and trap. The course has three main themes:•ediment gravity flows, sedimentation mechanics and resulting bed configuration.•epositional elements in the core, outcrop, and seismic scale.•pplication and interpretation of risk and uncertainty from new ventures tofield development and EOR.The impact of deep-water reservoir architecture on field success will be investigatedthrough modeling theory, to derive strategies for optimal outcomesover a range of uncertainty. Case studies will be used to illustrate each topicand determine appealing workflows. This course will alternate between inclusivelectures, hands-on technical demonstrations, and collaborative exercisesinvolving practical application of cores, outcrops, logs, and seismic data. Thecourse starts with an overview of how sediment is transported and depositedfrom shelf to bathyal depths and focuses on the broad range of sedimentaryprocesses and depositional environments. Individual and team exercisesinvolving core and outcrop samples allow participants to describe samples andinterpret their mechanism of deposition and their range of possible depositionalenvironments. Next, a deeper dive into depositional environments illustratesthe types of facies, as well as depositional and stratigraphic architecture, likelyto be found along the deep-water depositional system from submarine canyonto basin plain. Collaborative exercises using core, outcrop, and seismicexamples highlight the range of deep-water depositional environments andtheir effect on reservoir architecture and development. The skills of core descriptionand integration, reservoir characterization, and sequence stratigraphyare emphasized. Core-log-seismic exercises will show modern techniques onhow to predict variations in reservoir architecture in deep-water depositionalsystems. This course will conclude with a discussion summarizing modernadvancements in the prediction of sedimentary deposits, facies, and reservoirdevelopment in a variety of different settings. This course will give participants an understanding of the broad scope ofmarine siliciclastic depositional systems. Upon completion of the course, participantswill be able to:•escribe transport and depositional processes of deep-water strata includingturbidites, debrites, and transitional to hybrid flow type deposits•nderstand the different types of marine depositional environments (deltaicand outer shelf environments and those of submarine fans —anyon,channel, levee, splay, overbank) and their implications to petroleum reservoirarchitecture and reservoir quality•nderstand and interpret modern and ancient marine depositional systems•haracterize marine stratigraphy and build relationships with depositionalenvironments using outcrop, core, and other oil and gas industry data•se lithofacies and stratigraphic architecture to understand variations indeep-water reservoir properties pertaining to petroleum reservoir presence,quality, and seal presence•onceptualize and apply source-to-sink transport and sequence stratigraphicmethods to marine and deep-water sediment delivery•pply skills in seismic interpretation, reservoir characterization, core analysis,geophysical log interpretation, sequence stratigraphy, play fairway mapping,risk and uncertainty analysis, gross depositional environment mapping, andoil and gas exploration methods 1. Introduction to marine depositional systems with a focus on deep-waterdepositional systems•ignificance of deep-water petroleum reservoirs to the global oil and gasindustry•cientific and economic drivers for understanding sediment gravity flowsand their deposits•ediment gravity flows in action - historic sediment gravity flows from Canada,France, Norway, and United States2. Reservoir prediction: Transport and sedimentation processes of sedimentgravity flows•ypes of mass movement and deep-water deposits•hysics of sediment gravity flows and rheology, and steady vs uniform flows•redictive attributes of deep-water sedimentation to reservoir and seal presence,and reservoir quality3. Basic building blocks of clastic petroleum reservoirs: The range and variabilityof deep-water sedimentation units•igh- and low-density turbidity currents and their impacts on petroleumreservoir development•ouma and Lowe turbidite models and their application to reservoir characterization•ebris flows and their impact on submarine fan sedimentation•ransitional flows, slurry flows, and hybrid events and their classifications - M& H divisions and their impact on reservoir quality•ass-transport deposits (MTD) and review of other sediment remobilizationprocesses, including contour currents and contourite deposits4. Source-to-sink concepts and impact on reservoir quality•ource-to-sink method application to oil and gas exploration and production•aralic and shallow-marine processes of sedimentation•acies models and reservoir characterization for shallow-marine environments•iver-, tide-, and wave-dominated deltas, and fan deltas•hat are the different types of clinoforms observed in seismic data, andwhat is their role in sediment delivery to deep-water basins?•ncised valleys as prospective oil and gas targets•chnofacies of terrigenous, shallow-marine, and deep-marine depositionalenvironments5. The five main deep-water depositional environments according to•D and 3D seismic, outcrop, core, and log data•anyons•hannels•evees•obes (splays), with an introduction to deep-water braided channel and lobesystems•verbank6. Scales of petroleum reservoir heterogeneity: Architectural elements•hat are the various methods of stratigraphic interpretation and geneticelement classification in reservoir characterization?•ub-bed scale architecture and Turbidite Ratios7. Active margins vs. passive margins: Deep-water sedimentary basins and theirfacies models•hat are the effects of tectonic setting, shelf geometry, climate, and othercritical factors on deep-water sedimentation?•ifts•ange and variability in passive margin facies models•alt and its effects on sediment transport and deposition•hat are typical facies models for active margins? Discuss strike-slip andconvergent margins, and hybrid basins associated with active margins•ntracratonic basins•oreland basins•orearc and hybrid basins8. Large-scale drivers of continental margin sedimentation and application ofsequence stratigraphic methods to exploration and appraisal•ow was sequence stratigraphy developed by Grabau, Sloss, Mitchum, Vail,Thompson, Hubbard, Van Wagoner, and others? How is it applied? What arethe strengths and limitations of a sequence stratigraphic approach?•IGR model•rovenance and source-to-sink methods to understand sediment transferand application to reservoir presence and reservoir quality•ow do you know you’e in a deep-water depositional system? A review ofkey similarities and differences with deep-water systems and other systemsincluding fluvial and shallow-marine environments•onclusions and recent advancements in deep-water petroleum reservoirs The course is designed for employees of natural resource companies intechnical and management positions. Industry professionals will receive anunderstanding of deep-water sedimentary in-house-true
GeologyGeological ModellingPetroleum Exploration Strategy
By Jean-Jacques Biteau (Total Energies Professor Associate, France)
Jean-Jacques Biteaublock contract economy environmental exploration extrapolation license oil and gas ps resources risk sec uncertaintyThis course is set up as follows:Chapter 1: Introduction;Chapter 2: Definitions, elements of strategy, partnerships•eserves and costs•pstream actions, elements of strategy and petroleum partnershipChapter 3: Evaluation of Exploration projects;•a Working sequence and costs•b The prospect Evaluation sheet or ‘iche Objective’•c Economic criteria•d Economic studies in exploration / appraisalChapter 4: Partnerships, Contracts and mining acreage;•a Partnerships•b The main petroleum contract typesChapter 5: Missions and role of the Geoscience / Exploration Managerin affiliates / Manager Career, a mixt of experiences;Chapter 6: Practical case study. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•dentify the pillars of exploration;•nderstand resources, risk, uncertainty and value. The course is designed for professionals with a geoscience background.Students should have at least Master’
GeologyGeological ModellingVolumes and Risks Assessment for Conventional and Unconventional Plays and Prospects
By Prof. Dr Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, United States)
Alexei Milkovcbm coal oil and gas petroleum exploration risk shale uncertainty unconventional volumesThe course enables participants to transform qualitative geologicaldescriptions of plays and prospects into technically robust quantitativesuccess-case and risked volumetric models. Obtained learningswill help participants to evaluate probabilities of success (PoS) forexploration plays, segments, prospects, wells and portfolios andto assess the range of petroleum volumes in exploration projects.Examples and case studies come from both conventional and unconventionalplays, prospects and wells around the world. The learningobjectives are achieved through well-illustrated lectures, numeroushands-on exercises and active class discussions.We will cover the following topics:•lay-based exploration;•ssessment of success-case volumes for plays (conventional andunconventional), segments, prospects, wells and portfolios;•ssessment of exploration risks and probabilities of success;•iases and logical fallacies in;•ost-mortem analysis. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•se play-based exploration approach and tools (e.g., CommonRisk Segment mapping, Field Size Distribution analysis, CreamingCurves etc.) to locate sweet spots in conventional and unconventionalplays and assess remaining play/basin potential;•alculate deterministic potential (success-case) petroleum resourcesin conventional prospects and in unconventional plays. Assessand justify the range and probabilistic distribution of input parametersused in volumetric calculations;•ssess geological risks and PoS for conventional and unconventionalexploration, appraisal and development segments;•se industry-standard software (GeoX, REP or both) and run Monte-Carlo simulations to estimate unrisked and risked probabilisticvolumes for plays, segments, prospects and wells;•ecognize biases and logical fallacies common in exploration assessmentsand know how to correct them;•ggregate segments into a prospect and use risk and volumesdependencies between segments to estimate PoS and volumes forthe prospect. Calculate PoS for wells;•ggregate prospects and wells into exploration portfolio. Predictthe outcomes of portfolio drill-out;•valuate drilling results to establish main reason(s) for well failure. Day 1. Big picture trends in petroleum exploration. Play-based exploration.Fundamentals of volumetric and risk assessment for prospectivesegments.The first day introduces the participants to global exploration trendsand the concepts of Exploration Triangle and Play Based Exploration.You will learn the fundamentals of volumetric and risk assessment,the main definitions and the commonly used assessment tools (software).•elcome and introductions;•lobal trends in petroleum exploration since 1900;•lay-based exploration;•ommon Risk Segment (CRS) maps;•ield size distributions;•reaming curves;•et-to-Find resources;•isk versus uncertainty;•eterministic and probabilistic volumes;•uccess-case and risked volumes;•oftware tools used in the assessment of prospective resources.Day 1 exercises:•valuate the play fairway, make CRS maps, locate sweet spots inthe play;•uild and evaluate field size distributions and creaming curves,define remaining play/basin potential.Day 2. Basics of statistics, distributions and probabilities. Biases andfallacies in exploration. Volumetrics and risking for a segment ofconventional petroleum resources.The second day starts with the discussion of statistical parameters,distributions and probabilities. Participants will use real-world data(area, thickness, Net/Gross, porosity, saturation, Formation VolumeFactor, Recovery Factor) to build distributions as inputs into volumetricmodels. This will be followed by the discussion of biases and fallaciesin petroleum assessments and the tools that help reduce them.We will finish the day by doing hands-on assessment of volumes andrisk for a conventional prospect.•eaning of basic statistical parameters (Mean, Mode, P10 etc.);•istributions appropriate to use in petroleum exploration projects;•here and how to get data to build distributions;•ain biases and logical fallacies common in petroleum exploration;•echniques to reduce biases (Risk Tables, assurance teams);•ssessment of volumes and geological PoS for a segment;•sing information on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHIs) to updategeological PoS;•ssessment of geological risks for appraisal and developmentwells.Day 2 exercises:•uild porosity distribution for a segment;•alculate volumes and evaluate sensitivities to various inputs for aconventional oil segment.;•ssess success-case volumes, geological PoS and risked volumesfor a conventional oil segment (real prospect from offshore WestAfrica).Day 3. Volumetrics and risking for unconventional plays. Aggregationof segments into prospect. Portfolio analysis. Post-drilling analysis.The third day will start with the discussion of volumes and risk assessmentsfor unconventional oil and gas plays (tight, shale, CBM).After that, we will discuss aggregation of segments into prospectsand prospects into a portfolio. We will finish the course by studyinghow to do post-mortem analysis, learn from exploration successesand failures and become better explorers.•ssessment of volumes and risks for unconventional plays;•ggregation of segments into prospect, with risk and volumedependencies;•alculation of PoS for prospects and wells;•ggregation of prospects into portfolio;•earnings from discovery wells;•earnings from dry holes;•ull Cycle Economics evaluation.Day 3 exercises:•ssess in-place and recoverable volumes in unconventional shalegas and shale oil plays (real plays onshore Australia);•ssess recoverable volumes for small(ish) acreage of unconventionaltight oil in the USA (real play in the Powder River basin);•ggregate segments into a prospect, calculate values of PoS forthe prospect and for the well;•valuate a dry hole, determine the reason for well failure. The course is designed for geoscientists, engineers and managerswho work on exploration projects and require competency in theassessment of risks and
GeologyGeological Modelling3D Reservoir Modeling of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
By Dr Tim Wynn (TRACS International Ltd, United Kingdom)
Tim Wynndensity fractures geocellular integration porosity production reservoir characterization wells workflowsReservoir modeling for field development planning is a well-acceptedprocess but its application to fractured reservoirs requires specificconsiderations that are less commonly known. This course describesa practical methodology for building 3D static (‘eocellular’ reservoirmodels for naturally fractured reservoirs using standard modelingsoftware, covering such considerations.The issues addressed include the integration of log, core and seismicdata, the process of defining and building the static reservoir modelitself and the creation of output in a form appropriate for dynamicmodeling using dual porosity reservoir simulators where appropriate.More complex workflows using discrete fracture networks will alsobe summarized, as will general issues of fracture description, uncertainty-handling and developing and managing fractured reservoirs. Upon completion of the course, participants will:•e aware of practical workflows for modelling naturally fracturedreservoirs using standard industry software;•nderstand the data-gathering requirements and methodologyfor characterizing fractured reservoirs;•ppreciate the special distinction of naturally fractured reservoirmodels compared to standard single-porosity models. •rigins and distributions of natural fracturing•escribing and quantifying fractures from well data•stimating fracture system characteristics away from wells•eological model building workflow for implicit fracture representation•rief introduction to discrete fracture networks•asic fractured reservoir simulation model construction•ractured reservoir development and management considerations Geoscientists and petroleum engineers newly working in naturallyfractured reservoirs where they need to provide or receive outputfrom fractured reservoir models. Participants should have and in depth understanding of the oilbusiness and a good understanding of conventional reservoir characterizationand modelling techniques. No software will be usedinteractively during the day and no hands-on modelling experience istherefore required. However, it would be
GeologyGeological ModellingDeepwater Reservoirs: Exploration and Production Concepts
By Prof. Dorrik Stow (Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom)
Dorrik Stowcontinental margin drilling facies marine sand sandstone sequence stratigraphy shale turbiditeSandstones deposited in deep marine environments form importanthydrocarbon reservoirs in many basins around the world. Interbeddedmudstones can be important as source rocks, as well as actingas barriers, baffles and seals. Deepwater reservoirs are currently theprincipal target for oil and gas exploration, with over 1600 existingturbidite fields and plays. Driven by technological advances andmuch improved scientific understanding, the pace of exploration anddiscovery in this realm is fast accelerating. Keeping pace with thesedevelopments and with the new knowledge base is essential for allthose involved in deepwater systems. What began as the turbiditereservoir has matured into the more varied deepwater play of the21st century that no company can afford to ignore.This course is designed to provide the participant with a state-of-the-art review and update, thereby providing an overall understandingof the complexity of the deep marine system. It will outline the processesand facies and how they evolve on the slope and in the openocean; discuss how these facies build into distinctive architecturalelements and how they can be recognized in the subsurface. Thecourse also covers analysis and interpretation of seismic records,sea floor images, well logs (including borehole image logs), corematerials and outcrop characteristics of the component elements ofdeepwater reservoirs, emphasizing internal architecture as relatedto reservoir performance. Examples from different deepwater playsaround the world will be used to further illustrate their exploration,appraisal, development and reservoir management. Day 1 : Deepwater Overview, Building Blocks & ArchitectureGLOBAL OVERVIEW•lobal and historical perspectives, technologies and current trends•eepwater systems with hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon potential•ncient and modern analogues of deepwater systems•rocess-facies overview and state-of-the-artDOWNSLOPE SYSTEMS•ass transport processes and facies: slides, slumps, debris flows•urbidity currents: massive sands and thin-bedded turbidites•yperpycnal flows: new deepwater models•ubsurface recognition, examples and reservoir characteristicsALONGSLOPE SYSTEMS•ontour (bottom) currents: processes and facies•eepwater tides, waves and other bottom currents•ubsurface recognition, examples and reservoir characteristicsOPEN-OCEAN SYSTEMS•elagic-hemipelagic processes and facies•eepwater black shales: nature, occurrence and examples•etroleum perspective: barriers, baffles and source rocksARCHITECTURE: CHANNEL STYLE AND GEOMETRY•verview of deepwater architectural elements•hannel style, geometry fill characteristics•ass transport complexes in channels and basins•ubsurface wireline logs and reservoir examplesARCHITECTURE: LOBES, MOUNDS AND SHEETS•urbidite lobes and sheets•ontourite drifts and sheets•ubsurface wireline logs and reservoir examplesDay 2 : Seismic/Sequence Stratigraphy and Deepwater PlaysSUBSURFACE MODELS•ynthesis of deepwater models and their features•eismic characteristics of deepwater elements and systems•ireline log characteristics and borehole image logs•ea-level, tectonic, sediment supply and other controls•equence stratigraphy and depositional modelsDEEPWATER MASSIVE SANDS•ase studies: modern, ancient and subsurface examples•eservoir size, homogeneity and connectivity•eliberate search for the perfect deepwater reservoirTHIN-BEDDED TURBIDITES•ase studies: modern, ancient and subsurface examples•eservoir potential and development issues•he problem of shales and shale dimensionsDEEPWATER DRILLING•pecial issues for drilling in deepwater•lope instability and hazard mapping•urbidity currents and bottom currents: potential hazardDEEPWATER PLAYS WORKSHOP•essons from established turbidite plays: North Sea, California,Bohai and others•essons from current deepwater provinces: Gulf of Mexico, WestAfrica, NW UK Continental Margin, Brazil, North Slope Alaska, NileDelta and others•nteractive discussion session to consider implications for exploration,appraisal, development and reservoir management; toshare and discuss individual datasets, experience, questions andproblems•he new frontiers…urrent targets and expectation•ourse summary and take-home lessons All geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers involved in explorationand development of the deepwater play. Project managersfor deepwater plays and reservoir production. Participants should have basic knowledge of stratigraphy and
GeologyGeological ModellingNew Tools and Approaches in Reservoir Quality Prediction
By Dr Dave L. Cantrell (Cantrell GeoLogic and Stanford University, United States)
Dave L. Cantrell
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(0004820–21 Oct 2022)
basin analysis case study deposits diagenesis facies integration mapping porosity reservoir characterization reservoir modeling sediment sequence stratigraphy sparse dataReservoir quality prediction has historically been the “oly grail”f reservoir geologists, yet few have been completely successful atachieving this in a truly quantitative fashion. Most oil companieshave traditionally based their reservoir quality prediction efforts ongeostatistical models that are primarily driven by well and seismicdata, usually with some input from qualitative studies of outcrop andobservations of modern sedimentary processes. Prediction resultsfrom such studies are often less than optimal, especially in areaswhere data quality is poor and/or data coverage is sparse.The sheer complexity of factors controlling reservoir quality in thesubsurface makes prediction challenging, especially in carbonates.These factors include primary depositional texture and composition,as well as a wide variety of post-depositional modifications that occurto the sediment during and after burial. Developing quantitativetools that allow the prediction of reservoir quality ahead of the bit,and ideally pre-drill, can provide enormous benefits for both explorationand development drilling by reducing the risk associated withexploitation of heterogeneous intervals.Reservoir quality prediction means different things to different people;this workshop outlines an approach that’ based on an understandingof the geological processes that control reservoir quality, andwhich allows the quantitative prediction of reservoir quality (porosityand permeability) ahead of the bit. To accomplish this, this workshopfirst provides an overview of the main controls on reservoir quality inboth clastic and carbonate rocks, and then presents a new approachto pre-drill reservoir quality prediction that involves the integration ofa variety of modelling techniques to understand, quantify and predictthe geological processes that control reservoir quality. Since the initialreservoir quality framework is established at the time of depositionby a variety of depositional controls, this workflow uses numericalprocess models to predict initial reservoir quality; results from thesemodels are then modified via a series of other modeling technologies(compaction models, kinetic cementation models, reaction transportmodels, etc.) to quantify and predict various diagenetic modificationsthat have significantly affected reservoir quality in the intervalof interest. This approach successfully integrates these two differenttechnologies into one workflow that holistically predicts reservoirquality. Several case histories will be shown in which this approachhas been successfully applied. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to understand:•he main controls on reservoir quality, for both clastics and carbonates•he main principals behind a geologically process-based approachto reservoir quality prediction•he quality and power of geologically based predictions, as well assome of the inherent limitations•ow geological process models can be used to assess uncertaintyin prediction results. Introduction to reservoir quality•ontrols on reservoir quality in clastic and in carbonate rocksIntroduction to geological process based modeling•hat is process modeling and how does it work?•ow process based modeling fits into an overall reservoir qualityprediction framework•hat differentiates process modeling from other types of geologicalmodeling•ey input parameters in process modelingOverview of process modeling in siliciclasticsCase History #1 : Modeling a Paleozoic sandstone reservoirs in theMiddle EastOverview of process modeling in carbonates•istinctive aspects of carbonatesCase History #2 : Modeling a carbonate reservoir in the Middle EastConclusions The course is designed for geologists, reservoir engineers and technicalmanagers - and for all others looking to enhance their understandingand ability to predict reservoir quality. Some knowledge of geology, geological processes, and the mainchallenges of reservoir quality prediction would be
GeologyGeological ModellingWell Logs and Borehole Image
By Prof. Dr Michael Poppelreiter (Shell, Kuwait)
Michael Poppelreitercross-plotting density interpretation oil and gas resistivity sonic water well log wellsThe most universal, comprehensive and concise descriptive documentson oil and gas wells are well logs. They impact the work ofalmost every oil field group from geologists to roustabouts to bankers.Familiarity with the applications of well logs is therefore essentialfor people forging their careers in the oil business.The instructor uses a core-based approach to help participants developa good grounding in understanding and applying well loggingtechniques. General principles of physics are presented to explainthe functioning of modern logging tools. Wherever possible, thephysics of logging measurements is related to everyday tools andapplications. Cross-plotting and reconnaissance techniques quicklyand efficiently discriminate between water, oil and gas. Error minimizationtechniques, applicable only to computerized log analysis,produce optimal results. Participants benefit from realistic experienceby working in teams on a comprehensive log interpretation exercise. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand geological application of the most commonly run welllogs, i.e., caliper, gamma ray, sonic (velocity), resistivity, density,neutron, photoelectric factor, borehole images;•ead log headers to understand which tool was run in whichborehole environment;•uality control the logs;•lock logs in geologically meaningful intervals;•dentify lithologies using various techniques such as commoncross-plots;•alculate net-to-gross ratio and identify pay zones;•nterpret the depositional environment. The course is designed for geologists, petrophysicists and stratigraphers. Basic understanding of geology and petrophysics is desirable, alongwith knowledge of the principles of geoscientific data
GeologyGeological ModellingReservoir Model Design: How to Build Good Reservoir Models
By Dr Mark Bentley (AGR TRACS International, United Kingdom) and Prof. Philip Ringrose (Equinor and NTNU, Norway)
Mark Bentley, Philip Ringrose3d carbonates depositional system geostatistics integration permeability rock physics sedimentThis short course will provide an introduction to reservoir model design,covering the following main design elements:•odel purpose;•he rock model;•he property model;•odel scaling;•andling uncertainty.In this course, Mark Bentley and Philip Ringrose share their insightsinto building geological reservoir models, covering clastic andcarbonate sedimentary depositional systems, as well as fracturedreservoirs. The connection between geology and fluid flow is developedwith a focus on designing fit-for-purpose models with theconsideration of implications for single-phase and multiphase flowand with examples of application to oil and gas reservoirs and to CO2storage. Integration of seismic data, well data and dynamic data withassociated uncertainties are integral to the workflows and methodsdiscussed. This is a shorter version of a 5-day course and so is intendedas an introduction to the main concepts. Know how to approach a reservoir modelling task and assess the keydesign elements –istinguish between ‘ood’nd ‘ad’ 1. Introduction: Model Purpose (45 mins);2. Designing the Rock Model (60 mins);3. Property Model issues, Permeability and NTG vs TPM (90 mins);4. Model Scaling (45 mins);5. Handling Uncertainty (45 mins);6. Summing up: the Design Template. Geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, or reservoir engineers whohave or wish to work in multi-disciplinary teams on reservoir developmentprojects. Participants should have good knowledge of at least one componentof multi-disciplinary reservoir modeling: e.g., geological modeling,geostatistics, petrophysics, rock physics, or reservoir
GeologyGeological ModellingChallenges and Solutions in Stochastic Reservoir Modelling – Geostatistics, Machine Learning, Uncertainty Prediction
By Prof. Vasily Demyanov (Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom)
Vasily Demyanovgeology geological modelling cross discipline reservoir characterization reservoir managementReservoir prediction modelling is subject to many uncertainties associatedwith the knowledge about the reservoir and the way theyare incorporated into the model. Modern reservoir modelling workflows,which are commonly based on geostatistical algorithms, aimto support development decisions by providing adequate reservoirdescription and predict its performance. Uncertainty about reservoirdescription needs to be accounted for in modelling workflows toquantify the spread of reservoir predictions and its impact developmentdecisions.The course aims to build awareness of the impact the modellingchoices on the reservoir predictions and their relation to the wayuncertainty is incorporated into reservoir modelling workflows. Thecourse addresses the problem of tying the workflow with the expectedgeological vision of a reservoir subject to uncertainty. This is associatedwith one of the common issues, when standard assumptionsof a workflow are not consistent with the model geology or do notreflect possible variations due to existing uncertainty.The course demonstrates the implementation of geostatisticalconcepts and algorithms in geomodelling workflows and the waysuncertainty is accounted for in reservoir description and predictions.The course includes an overview of the state-of-the art conventionaltechniques and some more novel approaches, in particular machinelearning for reservoir description.Machine learning provides new opportunities in data integrationand the model control to tackle the modelling challenges related tonon-stationary multi-scale correlation structure and complex connectivitypatterns in reservoirs. Novel machine learning techniques aregood at capturing dependencies from data, when their parametricdescription is difficult; and controlling the impact of noisy and ad-hocdata. The objectives of the course are:•rovide a practical overview of geostatistical concepts used inmodelling workflows and their impact on reservoir models.•xplain how uncertainty is accounted for and propagated throughgeomodelling workflows.•ntroduce some machine learning approaches in geomodellingthrough a series of case studies.•emonstrate integration of geomodelling techniques for uncertaintyquantification of reservoir predictions.The outcome of the course is the practical understanding the keygeostatistical concepts, their implementation in reservoir modelling,principles of machine learning and its application in reservoir modelling.The course participants will get familiar with a variety of conventionaland advanced stochastic modelling algorithms and becomeaware of the impact from different modelling assumptions. •oncepts and assumptions of geostatistics•tochastic simulation vs interpolation•ncertainty quantification workflow for reservoir predication•achine learning techniques for spatial reservoir modelling- Classification - lithofacies- Regression –L geomodelling- Dynamic model update through learning from data•ata driven integration of relevant data and knowledge The course is designed for a wide audience of reservoir modellers,geologists and engineers with range of experience from novices toexperienced practitioners. Participants should have a basic knowledge of reservoir modellingand numerical
GeologyGeological ModellingConstruction of Fractured Reservoir Models for Flow Simulation Incorporating Geology, Geophysics, and Geomechanics
By Reinaldo Michelena (SeisPetro Geoconsulting, United States), Chris Zahm (UT Austin, United States), James Gilman (iReservoir, United States)
Reinaldo Michelena, Chris Zahm, James Gilman
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(0002023–26 Aug 2022)
anisotropy flow simulation fractures geomechanics history-matching inversion outcrop reservoir characterization reservoir engineering reservoir modeling unconventionalFlow models have the purpose of explaining and forecasting reservoirperformance that can help plan the development and exploitationof the resource. This class explains the steps needed to buildfractured reservoir models using sound stratigraphic and structuralframeworks, calibrated 3D seismic attributes, and geomechanicalinformation. Models and concepts are examined in the context ofhow they impact fluid flow, reservoir simulation results, field production,and forecast in conventional and unconventional reservoirs.This 2-day course presents workflows along with conceptual andspreadsheet-based exercises to solidify concepts. The course providesin-depth presentations and discussions of the models presented. •ighlight geologic concepts that control natural fracture developmentin conventional and unconventional reservoirs.•alue characterization methods that incorporate the use of 3Dseismic data for improved mapping of mechanical facies and fractureproperties•iscuss workflows that combine geologic and geomechanicsconcepts, petrophysical properties, and seismic attributes withingeological models in preparation for reservoir simulation.•uantify the combined effect of fracture properties and geomechanicalproperties in effective flow properties of simple fracturescenarios.•nderstand the need of combining multiple disciplines and datasources to develop an adequate flow model.•nderstand that fracture models are not platform- or software-specific,but utilize and blend all available data and relevant analogs.•nderstand that consistently developed continuum and discretefracture models can yield very similar results.•odel effective fracture permeabilities in a cell of a geologic modeland understand the parameters that control such permeability. Session 1•atural fractured reservoirs: overview and concepts•mpact of natural fractures on reservoir performance: overview•ight unconventional reservoirs: mechanical stratigraphy in core,well logs, and seismic•ight unconventional reservoirs: use and value of outcrop analogs•ight carbonate mechanical stratigraphy interpretation•eservoir engineering data for of naturally fractured reservoirsSession 2•ight unconventional reservoirs: seismic properties for fracturecharacterization•iscrete vs continuum natural fracture descriptions for simulationin fractured reservoirs•ight unconventional reservoirs: geomechanics review•ffective fracture permeability·ession 3•ight unconventional reservoirs: modeling perm of reactivatedfractures•ressure transient response time•onventional fractured reservoirs: overview and concepts•onceptual integrated fault damage zone model•alue of outcrop analogs in fracture modeling•onventional fractured reservoirs: facies, rock properties in coreand well logsSession 4•onventional fractured reservoirs: rock properties from 3D seismic•alibration of effective fracture permeabilities•pecial considerations for flow simulation in fractured reservoirs•utting it all together: Integration of outcrop, core, well logs, andseismic for improved reservoir models Due to its multidisciplinary nature, this class is designed for all levelsfrom entry to advanced. Nonein-house-truenew-trueregistration-open-true
GeologySedimentologySedimentary Rocks and Depositional Environments
By Prof. Dorrik Stow (Heriot Watt University, United Kingdom)
Dorrik Stowbasin analysis continental margin cores lithology outcrop reservoir characterization sandstone sediments shale thin section turbiditeSedimentary rocks and their depositional environments are fundamentalto all aspects of petroleum geoscience, including evaluationof the petroleum system, exploration, field appraisal, reservoir characterisationand development, and solving production issues. Equally,they are fundamental to the study of stratigraphy, mineral resources,water resources and global environmental change.Sediments deposited in rivers and deserts, deltas and deep-seafans, coasts, shelves and contourite drifts, bioherms and carbonateplatforms, all differ significantly in their rock properties, diageneticcharacter, heterogeneity and architecture. Such differences are key tounderstanding their behaviour as source rocks, migration pathways,reservoir rocks and seals, in both conventional and unconventionalhydrocarbon systems.This course is designed to give the participant a succinct, state-of-the-art, overview of sediments, sedimentary rocks and their principalcharacteristics, thereby providing a broad understanding of therange of sedimentary environments and the rocks they comprise. Itcovers clastic, carbonate, evaporite and volcaniclastic sediments, andthe full range of settings in which they are deposited –ncludingcontinental, shallow marine and deepwater depositional environments.Careful consideration is given to the principal diagnosticfeatures of sediments from the main environments –n the field, incores/boreholes, and in modern systems. Rock features include sedimentarystructures, ichnofacies, textures, composition, petrophysicalcharacteristics, and biogenic/organic content. For each environment,selected wireline logs will be examined, and the overall rock geometryor architectural elements discussed. A series of case studies willillustrate a range of hydrocarbon fields and plays from each of themain depositional environments.The presentations are fully illustrated with high quality colour imagesof sediments and sedimentary rocks from a wide range of modern,ancient and subsurface examples. Where possible the course can berun in conjunction with examination of cores in the lab, and/or withfield work, in order to better illustrate key features.The course will build on the handbook Sedimentary Rocks in the Field(Stow, 2005) and the new edition in preparation, Sedimentary Rocksin the Field and Core (Stow and Gerard, 2021). Each participant willreceive a copy of the latest revised edition of this book as well as afull set of the PowerPoint presentations. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•NDERSTAND the economic and environmental significance ofsedimentary rocks•PPRECIATE the full range of sedimentary rocks and their keydifferences•ECOGNISE the nature and origin of the principal sediment characteristics•ISTINGUISH between types of sedimentary rocks –odern, ancientand subsurface•VALUATE sediments in terms of the processes and environmentsof deposition•SSESS and interpret facies associations, sequences and architecturalelements•OCUS on source, reservoir and seal properties of different sedimenttypes•ESOLVE clearly and simply between different depositional environmentsin the subsurface•AIN an astute understanding of what questions to ask and whatanalyses to make•ECOME a better 21st century sedimentologist Unit 1: Introduction and Overview.•ourse aims and content•lassification and properties of sedimentary rocks•nterpretation of depositional environments•ethods of study: field, core and laboratory•ignificance: resources, water and the environmental recordUnit 2: Principal characteristics of sedimentary rocks.•ntroduction and facies concept•edding and lamination•rimary structures: erosional and depositional•econdary structures: post-depositional deformation & dewatering•iogenic structures: trace fossils, bioturbation, ichnofabrics andichnofacies•hemogenic sedimentary structures•ediment texture and fabric: grain size, sorting, grain fabric•ediment composition and colour•rincipal diagenetic changes: physical and chemicalUnit 3: Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks•onglomerates: definition, types, characteristics, classification,occurrence•andstones: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•udrocks: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•ydrocarbon significance: source, reservoir and sealUnit 4: Biogenic sedimentary rocks•arbonate rocks: definition, types, characteristics, classification,occurrence•herts and siliceous sediments: definition, types, characteristics,classification, occurrence•hosphorites: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•oal: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•ydrocarbon significance: source, reservoir and sealUnit 5: Chemogenic sedimentary rocks•vaporites: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•ronstones: definition, types, characteristics, classification, occurrence•oils, paleosols and duricrusts: definition, types, characteristics,classification, occurrenceUnit 6: Volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks•efinition, range of types and classification•rincipal sedimentary characteristics and occurrence•ydrocarbon significance: source, reservoir, seal and correlationUnit 7: Interpretations and depositional environments•uilding blocks: facies characteristics and models•ertical sequences and cycles, wireline log characteristics•ateral trends and geometry•rchitectural elements and facies associations•equence stratigraphy and bounding surfaces•ontrols, rates and preservationUnit 8: Depositional environments summary•rincipal characteristics of each of the main depositional environments•ydrocarbon case studies from each of the main depositionalenvironments•ase studies and exercises throughout course•ptional special topics –o be discussed in advance•otentila for core session in core lab and/or for complementaryfield work•ach participant will receive a full set of the PowerPoint presentations•ach participant will receive a copy of the latest revised edition ofthe instructor’ book:- Stow, 2005, Sedimentary Rocks in the Field, CRC Taylor & FrancisGroup The course is designed for all geologists, geophysicists and petroleumengineers involved in exploration and development. Project managersand senior management would also benefit from such a courseas a refresher.Recommended reading•oggs S, 2009 (Second edition). Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks,Prentice Hall•eeder MR, 2011 (Second edition). Sedimentology and SedimentaryBasins: From Turbulence to Tectonics, Blackwell Science•aynard JB, Potter PE, Depetris PJ, 2005. Mud and Mudstones:Introduction and Overview, Springer•eading HG, editor, 1996 (3rd edition) Sedimentary Environmentsand Facies, Blackwell•elley RC, 2000. Applied Sedimentology, Academic Press, SanDiego.•tow DAV, 2005. Sedimentary Rocks in the Field, CRC Taylor &Francis Groupin-house-truenew-truebook-true
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionAdvanced Marine Seismic Acquisition Techniques
By Dr Mike Branston (WesternGeco, United Kingdom)
Mike Branston3d obc p-wave prm reservoir engineering simultaneous source wide azimuthThe course is designed to familiarize the student with the latestdevelopments in Marine Seismic Acquisition including Wide-Azimuthwith its many geometry variants, Broadband techniques(boosting the high and low frequencies), seabed receivers forboth P-wave and Converted-wave recording, simultaneoussource acquisition, and methodologies to improve efficiency.The course starts with an overview of conventional 3D towed streamerseismic acquisition and then concentrates on recent advances thathave enabled dramatic improvements in seismic data quality andinterpretability. While the development of 3D marine seismic acquisitionsince the 1980s has been arguably the single most effectivetechnique in improved drilling success, the recent addition of “rue3D”r “ide-azimuth”echniques has led to improved sub-surfaceillumination and imaging. In addition to improved imaging, improvedresolution has been achieved through so-called broadbandtechniques achieved through novel source and streamer geometriesand multi-component receivers. The course compares wide-azimuthtowed streamer seismic acquisition as well as sea-bed seismic acquisition,ocean bottom cable (OBC) and ocean bottom node (OBN).Design and practical implementation considerations are reviewed;together with relative cost-benefits. In the case of sea-bed seismic,the value of multi-component recording is reviewed. Broadband seismictechniques are explained in terms of source and receiver design,practical implementation and interpretational benefits. The coursereviews the latest developments in simultaneous source technology,which are attempting to improve the data density and / or operationalefficiency of seismic acquisition. Finally the course reviewsthe other operational methodologies and designs that have beendeveloped to improve acquisition efficiency. A practical approach is adopted and is designed to provide the studentwith an up-to-date understanding of recent developments inmarine seismic acquisition technology. At the end of the course thestudent will be able to understand why and where these new technologiesare applicable, understand what studies are required to designnew surveys and understand the relative costs of acquiring andprocessing the seismic data compared to conventional acquisition. The course is designed for geophysicists and explorationists who wishto gain an overview of recent developments in 3D marine seismicacquisition. Participants are assumed to have a working knowledgeof conventional seismic acquisition techniques and their use in explorationand development of hydrocarbon resources. Participants should have a working knowledge of conventionalseismic acquisition techniques and their use in exploration and developmentof hydrocarbon
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionThe Benefit of Broadband Technology for Reservoir Characterization and Imaging – The End-User Value
By Dr Cyrille Reiser (Petroleum Geo-Services, United Kingdom)
Cyrille Reiserappraisal broadband case study interpretation inversion marine acquisition offshore reservoir sedimentThe main aim of this course is to provide a very accessible overviewof the many concepts behind broadband seismic (primarily offshore)and its implication for the reservoir focused asset based geoscientist.This will be done through the a very comprehensive set of case studymaterial from all regions of the world and for various stages of theexploration, appraisal and development asset life cycle. The courseaims to objectively discuss the various broadband seismic technologiesand commercial offerings available today and their respectivemerits with regards to quantitative reservoir characterization andreservoir imaging using real world application examples. The coursewill further attempt to identify possible pitfalls and issues with regardsto the treatment of broadband data that might lead to flawedor erroneous QI. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to understandthe value of broader bandwidth seismic data in general and forquantitative reservoir analysis from interpretation to rock propertyestimation in particular. The course is intended to be very appliedand hands on and will only review the very basic concepts of inversionbased rock property analysis and quantitative interpretation butwill otherwise focus on examples to illustrate the benefit of extendedbandwidth seismic. Course schedule:•hat is broadband seismic?•otential benefits•xploration case studies•ppraisal development case studies•hat next? The course is designed for geoscientists with a basic level of geophysicalknowledge, including a general knowledge of towed streameracquisition and processing methods but the content is designed to beaccessible for most geoscientists working with or interested in usingbroadband seismic in their day-to-day working life. In other words,definitely no requirement for expert
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionTime-Lapse Seismic: A Multidisciplinary Tool for Effective Reservoir Management
By Cedric Fayemendy (Equinor, Norway)
Cedric Fayemendy4d fluid grm injection monitoring oil and gas prm production workflowsGeophysical Reservoir Monitoring (GRM) of reservoirs relies on frequenttime-lapse observations with high-survey repeatability. Thistechnology is a key enabler for maximizing the oil recovery of oiland gas fields. The GRM technology aims at understanding andupdating the knowledge of producing reservoirs. This is achievedthrough mapping the movement of fluid and pressure fronts andfluid contacts during production and injection. The combination ofproduction monitoring with repeated seismic acquisition and geologicaland reservoir information provides reliable estimates of staticand dynamic reservoir parameters. The lecture will first review thegeophysical reservoir monitoring history at Equinor. We will shareour experience with 4D processes, resources allocation and theoverall monitoring strategy. The lecture will also cover challenges inunderstanding the 4D responses and value creation. Finally, we willlook at how we push the GRM technology towards higher use ofquantitative results. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the importanceand the benefit of time-lapse seismic. •heory of time lapse monitoring•ow do we plan for time lapse seismic?•he value of acquiring time lapse data.•ow are time-lapse data managed by the asset and integrated inthe reservoir management process.•n overview of the latest developments in time-lapse monitoringin Equinor including PRM. This course should be of interest to managers, geoscientists, reservoirand petroleum engineers with an interest in reservoir managementand monitoring using time-lapse
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionLand Seismic on New Technological Level
By Dr Anatoly Cherepovskiy (Independent Consultant, Russia)
Anatoly Cherepovskiy3d broadband full azimuth multicomponent refraction reservoir characterization statics survey design vibroseisThis course will provide information related to recent trends and advances inland seismic data acquisition technology, equipment and the methodologiesthat are being utilized to improve seismic imaging quality and productivity of3D acquisition with an emphasize on the high-end surveys as performed inopen areas. The course will not cover the fundamentals of 3D and multicomponentseismic survey design, although there will be a section that will give areview of recent survey design approaches and principles. The purpose of this course is to:•rovide an overview of trends in 3D land seismic and achievements;•nderstand trade-offs in modern field technologies;•nderstand the ways to improve seismic imaging and data conditioning forbetter reservoir characterization. 1. Introduction2. The revolutions and trends in 3D land seismic and evolution in surveydesign, field equipment, and acquisition techniques. The criteria of fielddata quality. The role of global positioning systems. Arrays versus pointreceivers and point sources Intra-array statics (synthetic and field-dataexamples), non-vertical ray emergence, and other factors degradinghigh-frequency content of acquired data and distorting amplitudes andAVO effects. Is there a compromise between high-frequency preservationand S/N ratio improvement? Digital array forming.3. Wide-azimuth and high-density surveysBreakthrough in seismic imaging with HD and WAZ data. More receiversor more sources? New types of attributes extracted from HD and WAZdata to better characterize complex and fractured reservoirs.4. Excitation and recording of wideband seismic signalsWhy do we need broadband signals? Types of velocimeters and accelerometers.Low-dwell and other nonlinear sweeps. Field data examples.5. 3C sensors and multi-component seismicAdvantages of 3C single sensors from operational and geophysical pointsof view. Multicomponent seismic with MEMS accelerometers: expectationsand practical achievements. Ray-tracing and finite-difference modelingstudies.6. Multiple-fleet and high-productivity vibroseis techniquesNew paradigm in seismic exploration: better sampling of noise and signal.The issues of data and equipment QC in high-productivity vibroseis.7. Diversity stack in noisy areas8. Cableless recording systemsInnovative technologies enabling a new generation of recording systemswithout cables and radio: the importance of GPS in the evolution of landseismic acquisition techniques. Where cableless systems are applicable?Full cableless and infill modes. Testing of autonomous (nodal) andreal-time recording systems in Russia.9. ConclusionsNot all acquisition techniques are equal (status in Russia vs. Middle Eastand North America)What will be high-end land 3D surveys in the future: point 3C acquisition?A mix of cable and cableless, very dense and very noisy data? The course is appropriate not only for geophysicists involved in land survey design,acquisition, and modeling, but also for those involved in data processingand interpretation who wish to better understand the potential improvementsthat can be made. The course assumes familiarity with basic seismic acquisition techniques andequipment. No mathematical background is required, since physical conceptsare graphically illustrated. A comprehensive list of references is given in the
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionLand Seismic Survey Design
By Paul Ras (SD2I Geophysical Consulting, Netherlands)
Paul Ras
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(000425–7 Oct 2022)
3d broadband imaging integration inversion land seismic modeling noise sensors signal processing simultaneous source vibroseis wide azimuthThis course presents an integrated approach to modern land 3D seismic surveydesign as it has a key role in the seismic value chain going from acquisition toprocessing, imaging and inversion & characterization. It will describe the maintechnology advances in land seismic acquisition: high-channel count single sensor(point receiver), simultaneous source high-productivity vibroseis, broadband andwireless nodal systems. New acquisition technology has in turn inspired progressin processing, imaging and inversion & characterization. Seismic survey designshave changed accordingly, wide azimuth high-density surveys are now the normin many environments. And the survey design workflow now includes singlesensor, single source, simultaneous source, broadband, symmetric sampling, cross-spreads, spatial continuity and more powerful 5D interpolation methods. It hasalso become more integrated, with requirements from processing, imaging andinversion & characterization feeding back to the design and hence acquisition. The purpose of this course is to understand:•he main parameters related to land survey design;•he generic land seismic survey design workflow;•he impact of the new acquisition technology on survey design;•ow design and acquisition affects processing, imaging and inversion andcharacterization. 1. Introduction: setting the stage discussing the survey design process as part ofthe seismic value chain and from the perspective of integrated project design;2. Survey design workflow: generic survey design workflow introducing thebasic design parameters and explaining how they are estimated. Amongother things this involves survey objectives, resolution, signal and noise. Inthe next sections, we will show the impact of the new technologies;3. The advent of high-channel count systems has enabled single sensor (or pointreceiver) recording. This can provide unaliased sampling of signal and noiseenabling easy removal of in particular near surface source generated noise;4. Simultaneous source hi-productivity vibroseis: acquiring data from multiple(groups or single) vibrators simultaneously from different source locations, whichcan improve spatial sampling and reduce cost by increasing productivity;5. Broadband: driven by imaging and inversion requirements, there has beena major technology effort to increase bandwidth, mostly on the low butalso on the high frequency side of the spectrum;6. Wireless nodal systems significantly improve operational flexibility inrestricted areas; increasingly being used with single sensors. Nodaltechnology is developing fast with higher channel counts while improvingWifi & Bluetooth technology enables better QC;7. The impact of survey design at the data processing stage includes receiversampling for adequate noise suppression, improved source sampling forwell sampled gathers (cross-spread, source, receiver) and fold (trace density).When we design the survey, we can for instance ensure well interpolated& regularized input to imaging, understanding of multiple behaviour, andenable good surface wave inversion for near surface modeling;8. At the imaging stage we should ensure spatial continuity, good spatialsampling (CMP bin), trace density, azimuth/offset sampling for azimuthpreserving OVT migration, sufficient migration aperture and bandwidth. Wecan model for good illumination;9. To ensure optimum inversion –n particular pre-stack and AVOAz –ndreservoir characterization, wide azimuth, high-density survey designscan provide good azimuth/offset sampling and S/N. Low frequency data(broadband) will reduce the dependency on well data, high frequency dataand good spatial sampling will optimize resolution;10. Finally, there will be a quick look at some future developments likeongoing research efforts in the area of vibroseis sources, simultaneoussources and wavefield interpolation. Acquisition geophysicists who are naturally involved in survey design but alsoprocessing geophysicists and interpreters who wish to understand how acquisitionprogrammes can be tailored to tackle their problems. The course may alsobe beneficial to geoscience (geophysics and geology) students. Participants are assumed to have basic knowledge of seismic acquisition andprocessing
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionIntegrated Seismic Acquisition and Processing
By Jack Bouska (Independent Consultant, Canada)
Jack Bouska
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(000267–8 Sep 2022)
3d dense surveys dynamite imaging interpretation land seismic mapping migration near surface obc offshore onshore sand sensors sparse data survey design vibroseis wave propagationA significant transformation is sweeping the seismic industry. The maturingof simultaneous source shooting, the introduction of ultra-small-lightweightautonomous recorders, along with the complimentary development of anew generation of highly portable, miniaturized impulsive seismic sources,all represent a true revolution in seismic acquisition technology. These newinventions are not only reducing the cost of conventional seismic, but are enablingultra high-quality 3D’ with mega-dense spatial sampling, in ways thatwere unimaginable only a decade ago. To truly take full advantage of theserecent innovations in source and recording technology requires abandoningsome outdated survey design and data processing practices in favor of moreappropriate methods tailored to modern seismic surveys. This course covers thefull breadth of knowledge and tools required to select and adjust survey designparameters for optimum imaging of the subsurface target, while honoringequipment limits and surface constraints. Students will learn a practical setof survey design techniques, using a combination of both presentations andin-class exercises, which are reinforced using specific examples of cutting-edgeseismic acquisition projects from around the globe. Each participant will gain exposure to the core principals of seismic 3D surveydesign, along with practice in selecting a balanced set of 3D acquisition geometryparameters for both optimum field implementation and competent dataprocessing. Students will also learn how those parameter choices directly affectacquisition operations, data processing and the quality of the final image volume. •oundations of seismic system integration and subsurface mapping;•ethods of acquiring seismic data, to image the subsurface;•ptimum processing of wide azimuth seismic data, to image the subsurface;•ntroduction to the survey design study, a data driven investigation intosurvey objectives, mapping requirements and geographic constraints;•he survey design procedure, techniques for selecting a balanced set of 3Dgeometry parameters;•ffshore Ocean Bottom Seismic 3D survey design, with worked examples;•nshore 3D seismic surveys using explosive sources, with worked examples;•nshore 3D seismic surveys using Vibroseis sources, with SimultaneousSource examples. The course is designed for:1. Seismic acquisition specialists who wish to learn more about designing cost-effectiveacquisition programmes, that are well matched to state-of-the-artprocessing and imaging techniques, along with strategies to exploit the futureof high channel count crews in order to create ultra-high quality images;2. Seismic processing specialists who wish to learn about how acquisitiongeometry parameter choice directly affects the ability to attenuate noise,and image the subsurface, in the context of a modern processing scheme3. Seismic interpreters with a desire to know more about both of the above. Participants are assumed to possess a working knowledge of the reflectionseismic method and its use in exploration and reservoir
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionSeismic Acquisition Project Essentials: from Concept to Completion and Beyond
By Jan de Bruin (Independent Consultant)
Jan de Bruinfinance hse procurement project management scouting seismic surveyExisting courses and books with the title ‘eismic acquisition’ypicallydeal with designing seismic surveys, and sometimes also with processingand evaluation of the acquired data.Design : Although I treat design in a somewhat less conventionalway, it is an important part of this course too, but other equallyimportant subjects receive equal attention. These are: Clients : Weneed to know who our clients are and understand what they wantand why they want it. Without them and their support we won’have a project, and there will be no point designing a seismic survey.Finance : It would be unfortunate to have the best possible design inthe world that will achieve your clients’bjectives and find out thatit is too expensive and the company will not set a budget aside for it.Procurement : A seismic survey is usually not bought “ff the shelf”We need to identify companies that can carry out the seismic surveyaccording to our design and our HSE requirements. We need to sign acontract with the company that we select to do the work. The coursewill also look at this from the perspective of seismic companies.Scouting : In order to come up with a good design that is not tooexpensive it is essential to scout the area where seismic data is to beacquired. Scouting costs relatively little and helps to avoid unpleasantand expensive surprises during execution.Communities : For the duration of the survey, and in case of successfor many years thereafter, we will be co-habitants of the area togetherwith the people who have lived there for generations. Thosepeople can and often will have a significant influence on the projectand can make it impossible to complete it.Execution : Even with good preparation, unexpected things will happenwhen the work in the field starts, making life more complex andmore interesting. When a crew of 1000 people is at work or a 10streamer vessel is acquiring data there is little room for mistakes andnot much time to decide what to do.Equipment : Equipment changes faster than any of the other elementsin this course. Ever since the beginning of seismic acquisitionthese changes have been towards larger quantities, better qualityand lower prices for seismic sources and receivers. This process isexpected to continue and the equipment used today may be verydifferent from equipment that will be used in the seismic industry 10years from now.Project management and Safety : These are the two pillars on whichany good project rests. Good project management includes goodsafety management. One could even argue that the two are largelythe same. Seismic acquisition is an industry where significant hazardsexist and serious accidents still happen. These can and must beavoided. To make seismic acquisition projects more successful.This is done by:•etter understanding the goals of clients of seismic surveys•etter preparing for a seismic survey, through scouting•aking a better design of the survey (design is also covered inother courses)•earning how to improve relations with people living in the area ofthe seismic survey•etter managing the financial aspects of a seismic survey 1. Introduction2. Clients3. Scouting4. Design5. Procurement6. Safety7. Communities8. Execution9. Finance10. Equipment11. Project management12. Outro This course suits professionals who want to understand why their lastseismic survey was not as successful as they expected.If you are either a client of seismic survey, in procurement, providingfinance support or in an HSE supporting or policing role related toseismic acquisition, then this course will be of interest to you.This course will be of interest for employees of seismic companieswho want to have a better understanding of how seismic surveysare conceived, initiated and managed in oil companies. More detailabout the exact reasons why oil companies want to acquire seismicdata and how they go about this will also be a focus.If you live in an area where a seismic survey will be conducted or ifyou are with an NGO in need of understanding more about seismicacquisition, then this course is for you. This course is essential for Geophysicists and staff in other disciplineswho are or will be involved in planning and executing seismic surveys.The course also contains important knowledge for those whoare providing support during the planning and execution of thesesurveys such as people in HSE, Procurement, and Finance. The coursewill be beneficial for those whose task it is to get the highest possiblevalue out of the data delivered by seismic surveys, for example Geologistsand Reservoir Engineers. It is only in the section about designthat some geophysical background will be helpful but this should notstop anyone subscribing. Regardless of their experience and education,those whose main task is to make important contributions tothe success of seismic surveys will benefit from this course. Partiallythis is because the project (the seismic survey) will benefit when allthose involved have a good understanding of what the others aredoingin-house-true
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionBasic Geophysical Data Acquisition and Processing
By Dr Jaap C. Mondt (Breakaway, Netherlands)
Jaap C. Mondt2d  3d  4d seismic electrical surveying gpr gravity surveying imaging magnetics surveying result in depth rock properties shallow retraction signal-to-noise ratio value of information wave propagationThis course treats various geophysical methods, from gravity tomagnetics, electrical, electro-magnetic, refraction and reflectionseismic. It will be taught not only by explaining and discussing themethods, but above all by applying the theory in mainly Excel basedassignments.Various kinds of geophysical data are available. They are usually separatedinto Non-seismic and Seismic data. Non-seismic data (gravity,magnetics, electrical, electromagnetics, spectral, etc.) is the maindata used in shallow subsurface applications (engineering, mappingpollution, archaeology, etc.) and at the early exploration stage in thesearch for oil, gas or minerals. Seismic is the main subsurface evaluationtool for the EP industry, but it has its limitations. Therefore,non-seismic methods are used successfully as complementary toolsat the more mature exploration stages and even for production.In combination with seismic data they can significantly reduce theuncertainty of subsurface models as they measure different physicalproperties of the subsurface. Controlled Source EM, for example,responds to reservoir resistivity and can thus be used to differentiatebetween hydrocarbons and brine in a geological structure mappedby seismic.The main topics covered by the programme are:•ravity surveying•agnetics surveying•lectrical surveying•lectro-Magnetic surveying, including Ground Penetrating Radar•cquisition of shallow refraction seismic data•cquisition of reflection seismic data•hen to use 2D, 3D and 4D seismic / non-seismic•rinciples of wave propagation•asic designs of 2D and 3D seismic acquisition•rocessing of seismic and GPR data with the objectives ofimproving signal-to-noise ratio, vertical and lateral resolution•rom simple migration to Imaging•esult in depth (Time-to-Depth conversion)•hat to spend on a new survey, be-it a new survey or a reprocessingor re-interpretation project. Hence, to determine whetherthe expected reward (increase in value) is higher than the cost ofthe project. In short, what is the value of the new informationobtained (VOI: Value Of Information) At the end of the course, participants will have a good understandingof what information various geophysical data can give and forwhat purposes it can be used. This will enable them to specify therequirements for a survey or a reprocessing or interpretation project,either done in-house or by a specialised service provider.Other benefits include:•lace and value geophysical activities in a multi-disciplinarycontext•udge the merits of various geophysical techniques•etter liaise and collaborate with staff in related disciplines•ecognise artefacts and direct hydrocarbon indications on seismic•alue novel developments such as time lapse methods forhydrocarbon reservoir monitoring or pollution control. •art 1: The principles and limitations of Geophysical methods•art 2: Gravity surveying, Magnetic surveying, Electrical surveying•art 3: Electro-Magnetic surveying•art 4: Seismic Refraction surveying•art 5: Seismic Reflection surveying•art 6: Value of undertaking a new project (VOI) The course is designed for Geologists, Geophysicists and PetroleumEngineers involved in exploration and development of oil and gasfields and for those involved in projects related to the shallowsubsurface (monitoring pollution). In addition, it would be useful forthose dealing with the effects of production of a field (subsidence,earth tremors). A reasonable level of understanding of mathematics and physics
GeophysicsSeismic AcquisitionAdvanced Seismic Data Acquisition and Processing
By Dr Jaap C. Mondt (Breakaway, Netherlands)
Jaap C. Mondtacquisition strategy migration nmo correction noise spread permeability porosity processing strategy reservoir rocks rock properties signal processing source rocks spacial aliasing symmetric sampling time-to-depth conversion value of information velocity modelThe course deals with advanced methods of seismic acquisition andprocessing. It will be taught not only by explaining the methods,but above all by applying the theory in mainly Excel based assignments.Seismic data is one of the main sources of information on thesubsurface. We not only need to obtain the structure that couldcontain hydrocarbons, but also the rock properties so we candecide on whether we are dealing with reservoir rocks (sandstone,carbonates, even shales), sealing rocks (shales, salt) or source rocks(shales, coal). It is not only important to know what type of rock ispresent, but also what its porosity and permeability is: how easy dothe hydrocarbons flow through the rocks. To obtain the best imageof the subsurface we first need optimum acquisition. Optimummeans fit for purpose. There are several criteria that need to besatisfied. First of all, the area covered during acquisition should bethe prospect area extended sufficiently to provide fold-fold andfully migrated data. An acquisition principle that should be adheredto as much as possible is symmetric sampling, which means equalshot and receiver spacing and equal in-line and cross-line distances(for a 3D). A noise spread (trial acquisition with closely spacedreceivers and shots) is acquired in each new area to determine theneeded shot and receiver intervals, the bandwidth, etc. The shotand receiver station spacing should be such that no spatial aliasingof the data occurs. Surface and subsurface diagrams are useful tosee what CMP spacing and offsets in each CMP gather result fromthe surface geometry of shots and receivers. The data recorded isthe ground motion which gives a continuous (analogue) signal intime which needs to be digitized for the processing. This digitizationneeds to be done so that neither temporal nor spatial aliasingoccurs. Namely, by aliasing information will be lost. Hence, thecomplete wave-field which arrives at the surface must be faithfullyrepresented by the discrete/digital data.Although all the information is present in the so-called shot orfield records, processing is needed to make them accessible forinterpretation. In interpretation, we try to obtain a true image ofthe “eology”f the subsurface. Processing can be divided into a)signal processing steps and b) wave propagation based processingsteps. Signal processing steps are, for example, static corrections,removal of shot-generated noise by velocity filtering, shorteningof the wavelet by de-convolution, NMO correction, etc. Thewave-propagation part consists of migration or imaging. For wavepropagation we need, in principle, to use equations describingfull elastic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic,visco-elastic earth (as that is what really happens in the subsurface).However, these equations would lead to very complicated andcomputer intensive processing algorithms. So, we usually simplifyour description of the wave propagation. What we do is to use, asphrased by Ian Jones and others, "appropriate approximations".The one most commonly used is the one-way acoustic waveequation which describes only a single reflection per reflectionray-path and ignores density. It only uses a velocity depth modeland only considers P-wave propagation. This will provide us, forexample, with migration algorithms/operators (for time- as well asdepth migration) that will still do a reasonably correct summationof acquired data. It will give a migration output that still shows,maybe not correctly, the results of anisotropy, attenuation, waveconversions, shear velocities, etc. Despite the use of this acousticapproximation in our processing, amplitudes can be used (canthey?) to determine pore-fluids and pre-stack migrated data thatcan be used in AVA analysis for deriving shear wave properties.But note that if we model, as in inversion, a synthetic geophysicalquantity, say related to amplitudes, such as the reflection coefficientwe need (do we?) to include densities across the interface and forAVA we need to include density and shear velocity to interpret thepre-stack seismic amplitudes (as the effect of these properties iscontained in the observed data).All of this will be treated in this course. At the end of the course participants will have a good understandingof what information seismic data can give and for whatpurposes in Exploration and Production it can be used. This willenable them to specify the requirements for a survey, either done bythemselves of by a special service provider.Other benefits include:•lace and value geophysical activities in a multi-disciplinarycontext•udge the merits of various seismic geophysical techniques•etter liaise and collaborate with staff in related disciplines•ecognise artefacts and direct hydrocarbon indications on seismic•alue novel developments such as time lapse methods forhydrocarbon reservoir monitoring •art 1: The role of seismic in the Exploration and Production ofHydrocarbons•art 2: Seismic Acquisition Strategies•art 3: Seismic processing Strategies•art 4: Time-to-Depth conversion, Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators•art 5: Value of Information: How much to spend on new acquisitionand/or new processing The course is designed for geophysicists involved in designingand supervising seismic acquisition and processing, and for thoseinvolved in specifying/supervising the acquisition and processingdone by service companies. Participants should have a basic understanding of seismic acquisitionand processing and general knowledge of the role of seismic inexploration and production of
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingIntroduction to Data Analysis: Concepts and Examples
By Dr Robert Godfrey (Robert Godfrey Geophysics Inc., Canada)
Robert Godfrey
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(000142–5 Aug 2022)
4d avo depth migration fractures imaging impedance reflection reservoir characterization rock physics signal processing time lapse tomographyThe course covers a range of advanced data analysis topics includingnovel signal processing techniques, pre-stack depth migration, reservoircharacterization, time lapse analysis and the road ahead.The free on-line books by Jon F. Claerbout, material from SEG Wikiand papers published in Geophysics, The Leading Edge and SEGExpanded Abstracts are used to provide technical background forthe course topics. 1. Suggest acquisition strategies toa. broaden spectrum (both low and high)b. reduce acquisition cost where appropriatec. provide superior illumination andd. improve conventional wave imaging using shear waves tohighlight faults/fractures, low compressional wave impedancecontrasts and gas-effected areas.2. Advise and recommend key steps in data processing workflows.3. Choose appropriate pre-stack depth migration algorithms to imageexpected dip range (e.g. Kirchhoff, Beam, RTM).4. Advise on velocity-depth model building workflows (e.g. GridTomography or FWI).5. Decide on the applicability of applying AVO and what elasticattributes to estimate.6. Define optimal petrophysical parameters to be estimated usingelastic attributes and an associated workflow including probabilityanalysis if appropriate. 1. Signal Processing2. Novel Seismic Acquisition3. Multiple Attenuation4. Pre-Stack Depth Migration5. AVO & Rock Physics6. Quantitative Interpretation7. Time-Lapse Seismic8. The Road Ahead The intended audiences for this course are geoscientists-in-training,seismic data processors, petroleum geologists, seismic interpretersand operational geophysicists who are seeking to expand theirknowledge base on modern concepts in geophysical data analysis. Participants are expected to have a basic knowledge of the fundamentalsof data processing and some experience in
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingVelocities, Imaging, and Waveform Inversion – The Evolution of Characterizing the Earth’s Subsurface
By Dr Ian Jones (Brightskies Geoscience, United Kingdom)
Ian Jones4d avo deconvolution inversion migration multiple elimination noise cancellation signal processing static corrections velocity analysisIn using sound waves to characterise the Earth’ subsurface, we canemploy ray-theory and/or wave-theory, and both migration algorithmsand velocity estimation schemes employ one or other of thesetheoretical descriptions. In this course, we’l review the evolution ofthe industry’ approaches to building earth models via velocity estimationand imaging, outlining the evolution from ray tomography tofull waveform inversion, and look towards the emerging possibilitiesfor replacing imaging techniques with direct subsurface parameterinversion methods.The approach will be non-mathematical, concentrating on an intuitiveunderstanding of the principles, demonstrating them via casehistories.The course will commence with a brief overview of different migrationschemes, and cover the motivations for building detailedvelocity models, and briefly discuss the inherent limitations on ourability to build a detailed model. Current-day practice will be covered,exemplified via several case-studies, and we will then discussthe newer techniques such as waveform inversion and least-squaresmigration. The approach will not be mathematical, but rather willtry to concentrate on an intuitive understanding of the principles,and demonstrate them via case histories. The course schedule will bedivided into the following sections:•hy do we need a detailed velocity model? Including a brief reviewof migration schemes.•ow accurate can we make an image and how detailed can weget? We’l discus the sources of uncertainty, non-uniqueness andambiguity, as well as the intrinsic limits on resolution•urrent industrial practice: Iterative model update with both ray-based tomography and waveform methods in order to achieve‘rue amplitude’ubsurface information.•hat might come next? Discussing direct inversion of subsurfaceparameters as an alternative to simply migrating data.Following this course, participants should ideally understand howmigration works, in terms of the approximations involved, and howthis relates to the geology to be imaged. They should appreciate thelimitations of current and future imaging and velocity estimationtechnology, so as to be able to decide what model building techniqueshould be employed to image a given geological objective.And finally, to appreciate the potential for a radical change in currentindustrial practise, moving from a sequential imaging route (via migratedimages) to a closed-loop inversion route (directly deliveringsubsurface attributes). Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand how migration works, in terms of the approximationsinvolved, and how this relates to the geology to be imaged.•ppreciate the limitations of current and future imaging andvelocity estimation technology, so as to be able to decide whatmodel building technique should be employed to image a givengeological objective.•ppreciate the potential for a radical change in current industrialpractise, moving from and imaging route (via migrated images) toan inversions route (delivering subsurface attributes) The course will cover the building detailed velocity models for imaging,and briefly discuss the inherent limitations on our ability to builda detailed model. Current-day practice will be covered, exemplifiedvia case-studies, and we will then discuss the newer techniques suchas waveform inversion and least-squares migration. The approachwill not be mathematical, but rather will concentrate on an intuitiveunderstanding of the principles, demonstrated via case histories.The schedule includes:•hy do we need a detailed velocity model?(Review of migration schemes)•ow accurate does an image need to be and how detailed canwe get?(Sources of uncertainty, non-uniqueness and ambiguity, limits onresolution)•urrent industrial practice: Iterative model update(ray-based tomography and waveform inversion methods)•hat might come next?(direct inversion of subsurface parameters) The course is designed for:practising geoscientists who desire to better understand the principlesand limitations of both current and emerging technologiesinvolved in subsurface parameter estimation and imaging, and geosciencestudents. A general knowledge of
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingA Comprehensive Overview of Seismic Data Processing Steps
By Piet Gerritsma (Gerritsma Geophysical Training and Consultancy, Netherlands)
Piet Gerritsma4d avo deconvolution inversion migration multiple elimination noise cancellation signal processing static corrections velocity analysisSeismic data processing can be characterized by the application of asequence of processes, where for each of these processes there are anumber of different approaches. This course provides a comprehensiveoverview of the steps that are commonly applied in seismic dataprocessing and discusses for each step the alternative implementationstogether with their inherent assumptions and strengths andweaknesses. This course provides the participants with a workingknowledge of the different processing methods and enables themto assess the quality of a processing result. It can serve as a startingpoint for further study and/or enable them to be a member of aprocessing and/or multidisciplinary team. At the end of the course the participants will have obtained anunderstanding and appreciation of the many alternative processingapproaches that are representative for the practice of current seismicdata processing. The course emphasizes for each process the variousexisting underlying geophysical models. Many examples will beshown to illustrate the material; theory with references will be included;a handout that covers all course material will be made available. The following steps in seismic data processing will be discussed:1. Introduction to data acquisition practises2. Static corrections3. Velocity analysis4. Deconvolution5. Signal-to-noise enhancement techniques6. Multiple elimination7. Stacking8. Migration: time migration and depth migration9. Velocity model building10. Introduction to AVO, 4D Seismic, and Seismic Inversion Students, starting geophysicists, interpreters and geologists, petrophysicistsand reservoir engineers who wish to understand seismicdata processing either as an introduction for further study and/or asa knowledgeable member of a multidisciplinary team. Course participants should be interested in seismic data processing;a background in science will be
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingAn Introduction to Velocity Model Building
By Dr Ian Jones (Brightskies Geoscience, United Kingdom)
Ian Jones3d anisotropy depth migration imaging inversion rtm time migration tomography vspThe course will commence with an overview of different migrationschemes, and cover the motivations for building detailed velocitymodels, and briefly discuss the inherent limitations on our ability tobuild a detailed model.Current-day practice will be covered, exemplified via many case-studies,and we will briefly discuss the less well known and emergingtechniques. The approach will mostly be non-mathematical, andwill rather try to concentrate on an intuitive understanding of theprinciples, and demonstrate them via case histories. The bias in thiscourse is towards those techniques that have seen widespread industrialuse over the past 40 years. Unfortunately, some topics willnot be covered, in-part due to the time constraints: these omissionswill include consideration of VSP and multi-component data, andMarchenko imaging. The course objective is to provide the participants a firm understandingof the processes and assumptions involved in buildingvelocity-depth models and of the limitations of various migrationalgorithms For the topics listed below, real data examples will be used to demonstratethe application and limitation of each technique.Why do we need a detailed velocity model?•eview of migration schemes•he limitations of time migration and benefits of depth migration•nell’ law and how to ignore it•ow does depth migration differ from time migration?•s depth migration always necessary?•igration using ray methods (Kirchhoff, beam, CRAM, etc.)•igrating using wavefield extrapolation methods (WEM, RTM,etc.)•ne-way versus two-way propagation•reating gathers in wavefield extrapolation methods•re-processing considerations for RTMHow detailed can we get?•ources of uncertainty•on-uniqueness and ambiguity•imits on resolutionResolving short-scale-length velocity anomalies:•nisotropy versus heterogeneity (and other higher order moveouteffects)•he mechanics of tomographic inversion with ray theory•arametric versus non-parametric picking of residual moveout•tructural constraints, MAZ, OVT, and Q tomography•he mechanics of tomographic inversion with wavefield extrapolationtheory (FWI)Examples of current industrial practice for various geological settings(time permitting):•esolving near-surface velocity anomalies•eismic response to strong vertical velocity change (e.g. chalk,basalt, salt)•eismic response to strong lateral velocity change (e.g. salt walls,lateral terminations)•omparisons of ray tomographic and FWI models for specificcase studiesThe Future: emerging R&D directions (time permitting)•aveform inversion developments•east squares migration•igrating multiples•ull wavefield imaging•cattered wavefield imaging•‘daptive optical imaging’•ayesian uncertainty estimation (putting error bars on images) Geophysicists with an interest in migration and velocity model buildingand geologists (with a basic knowledge of data processing) whowish to understand a bit more about how the images they look atare created. The course is designed to be followed by anyone with a broad geosciencebackground: no specific detailed foreknowledge is required,although a familiarity with geophysical terminology will be
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingSeismic Multiple Removal Techniques: Past, Present and Future
By Dr Eric Verschuur (Delft University of Technology, Netherlands)
Eric Verschuur3d deconvolution extrapolation filtering fourier imaging interpolation inversion migration radon transformThe main objective of this course is to provide the audience with anoverview of the techniques in seismic multiple removal, starting withthe deconvolution-based methods from the 1960s, via the move-out discrimination techniques of the 1980s and ending up withwave-equation based methods from the 1990s and their 3D extensionsas developed in the 2000s. Furthermore, the current challengesin multiple removal and their relation with seismic imaging and inversionare treated. A secondary objective is to discuss more generalprocessing concepts such as high-resolution seismic data transforms(Fourier, Radon), adaptive filtering techniques, wave-equation basedforward and inverse wave propagation and the processing of seismicdata in different transform domains. For each method some briefdescription of the theory in terms of mathematics is given. However,the emphasis in this course is not to thoroughly treat the mathematicsbut to present some understanding of the workings of eachmethod. At the end of each lecture, a list of relevant articles in the open literaturewill be specified. The course is subdivided in 10 lectures, eachof them being approximately 30-45 minutes. Within each lecture,examples of the described concepts on synthetic and field data willplay an important role.Lecture 1: Multiples ... what’ the problem?•lassification of multiple reflections•haracteristics of multiples•mpact on seismic imaging and interpretation•ategories of multiple removal methodsLecture 2: Multiple removal based on move-out and dip discrimination•rinciple of multiple removal by move-out discrimination•-K and Radon transforms•ultiple removal by filtering in the FK or Radon domain•owards high-resolution Radon transforms•imitations of multiple removal by move-out discrimination•ultiple removal by target-oriented dip filteringLecture 3: Predictive deconvolution•onvolution and correlation concept•esigning adaptive filters by least-squares optimisation•redictive deconvolution basics•xtending the predictive deconvolution conceptLecture 4: Multiple removal by wave field extrapolation•orward and inverse wave field extrapolation•ultiple prediction by wave field extrapolation•pplication in the wave number and linear Radon domainLecture 5: Principles of surface-related multiple elimination•erivation of SRME for the 1D situation•ncluding the source characteristics•terative implementation of SRME•ormulation of SRME for the 2D and 3D situation•elation between multiple prediction and subtraction methodsLecture 6: Practical considerations for surface-related multiple elimination•ffect of missing data on SRME•nterpolation of missing near offsets•pplication of SRME in different data domains•hallow water multiple removal strategyLecture 7: Adaptive subtraction of predicted multiples•east squares and L1-norm subtraction•attern recognition and other multiple subtraction techniquesLecture 8: Towards 3D multiple removal•ultiples in complex 3D environments•D SRME: theory and practice•D SRME: solutions via data interpolationLecture 9: Internal multiple removal•nternal multiple removal by move-out discrimination•xtending the SRME concept to internal multiples•nternal multiple removal by inverse scatteringLecture 10: Removing or using multiples?•ransforming multiple into primaries•stimation of primaries by sparse inversion•ncluding multiples in the migration process•ncluding multiples in the inversion processFor the 2-days course , especially the second part of the course, willbe more elaborated with extra topics being:•ore elaborate discussion on adaptive subtraction techniques(Lecture 7)•ore extensive explanation on internal multiple removal (Lecture 9)•ncluding the recently developed EPSI (Estimation of Primaries bySpares Inversion) methodology (Lecture 10)•ncluding an extensive discussion on using surface multiples inImaging (Lecture 10) The target audience is composed of people involved in seismic processing,imaging and inversion. The mathematical content is kept toa minimum level with a strong link to the involved physical concepts,amplified by graphical illustrations. The audience is expected to haveprior knowledge at a B.Sc./M.Sc. level on processing concepts suchas convolution, correlation and Fourier transforms and some basicknowledge on wave theory. Participants should have a basic knowledge of:•asic signal processing (convolution, correlation, Fourier transform);•asic seismic processing (preprocessing, imaging);•asic knowledge on the acoustic wave equation and wave
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingUnderstanding Seismic Anisotropy in Exploration and Exploitation: Hands On
By Dr Leon Thomsen (Delta Geophysics, United States)
Leon Thomsenavo depth conversion fractures imaging multicomponent p-wave pore pressure reciprocity reservoir characterization rock physics s-wave wide azimuthThis course covers all areas of applied seismic anisotropy, with classexercises and ample time for full discussion. Because anisotropy issuch a fundamental concept, it covers topics in seismic acquisition,processing, imaging and interpretation, all based on seismic rockphysics. This is not a “ethods course”ut rather a “oncept course” familiarizingthe students with essential concepts, enabling them to askthe right questions in future conversations, rather than to operateparticular software packages. 1. Physical principles2. P-waves: imaging3. P-waves: characterization4. S-waves5. C-waves6. Epilogue Geophysicists should attend who have a working knowledge of conventionalexploration geophysics and wonder how it can be that weuse isotropic concepts to acquire and analyze data that come fromrocks that, after only brief thoughtful consideration, must clearly
GeophysicsSeismic ProcessingBorehole Seismic Fundamentals and Introduction to Advanced Techniques
By Allan Campbell (VSP Consultants LLC, United States)
Allan Campbell
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(000169–12 Aug 2022)
2d 3d 4d anisotropy attenuation avo borehole geophysics case study fractures full wavefield imaging kirchhoff land seismic marine seismic offshore oil and gas rtm time-lapse tomography traveltime velocities vsp vtiThis course has 6 sections. The course moves from giving a basicunderstanding of the most common surveys towards the newesttechniques being developed to solve modern problems.1. Introduction to Vertical Seismic ProfilingThe VSP techniques used in industry are introduced. Basics ofwireline acquisition, and an introduction to fiber based acquisitionare covered. This section gives a brief overview of the value of allthe commonly used borehole seismic techniques, from checkshotthrough to 3D VSP.2. The BasicsCheckshot (velocity survey) and zero-offset VSPs are widely used, aresimple to acquire and process, and have huge value. This section willdescribe acquisition, processing and interpretation of these basic, butpossibly the most important, surveys.3. 2D and 3D ImagingThis section will focus on designing and interpreting walkaway VSPand 3D VSP surveys. Down-hole receivers create the opportunity forhigher resolution images than surface seismic can provide, and canprovide images in poor seismic imaging areas, or images where surfaceaccess is difficult. Advanced processing techniques will be discussed.Specifics of survey planning and acquisition will be covered.4. Anisotropy and MoreThe anisotropy module will focus on extracting VTI and HTI anisotropyparameters from walkaway VSP and 3D VSP surveys. Seismic maybe improperly imaged due to poor anisotropy assumptions. Stressand fracturing information may be deduced from seismic and validatedwith VSP. Having receivers down-hole and sources at the surfacecreates an ideal opportunity to measure anisotropy in-situ. Groundtruth measurement of AVO can be made with receivers downhole,this section describes the various VSP AVO techniques in commonuse. Downhole arrays are also ideal for locating multiple generatorsand measuring Q which we cover in this section.5. Reservoir Monitoring and Reservoir PropertiesThis section focuses on time-lapse 3D VSP, which can observe reservoirchanges with a greater precision than is possible with surfaceseismic. There is an overview of fracture detection and orientationwith VSPs. Elastic FWI is being developed to measure the reservoir’elastic properties, and will be briefly covered. A discussion on veryhigh resolution imaging and tomography with Crosswell seismicfinishes the module.6. Advanced AcquisitionTechnology marches forward as limitations are reached in wireline acquisition.Putting the receivers in the drill string to get real-time VSPs(while drilling) is becoming routine. Optical fiber (DAS) recording isan emerging technology which enables efficient, fit-for-purpose VSPsurveys with cost benefits over traditional wireline technology. Upon completion of the course, participants will know the basics ofacquiring and processing borehole seismic data. They will also befamiliar with the latest borehole seismic techniques in:•igh resolution imaging using 2D and 3D VSP surveys;•nisotropy determination and fracture analysis;•eservoir monitoring using time lapse VSP and crosswell seismic;•lternative acquisition schemes such as SWD and DAS.Participants will have a better understanding of the role of boreholeseismic techniques in hydrocarbon exploration and production. Theywill be able to more knowledgeably participate in the design, planningand execution of advanced surveys and be comfortable with theinterpretation of these surveys. The course will contain the following modules:1. Introduction to Vertical Seismic Profiling (1.5hrs)2. The Basics (2 hrs)a. Checkshot VSPb. Zero Offset VSP3. VSP Imaging: 2D and 3D Techniques (2 hrs)a. Survey design and modelingb. Processing- model building, tomography, imaging techniques (Kirchhoff,RTM)c. 2D imaging- Offset VSP, Walkaway VSPd. 3D imaging4. Anisotropy and More (3 hrs)a. Measuring anisotropy with walkaway and 3D VSPs-VTI and HTI, fracturesb. AVO Analysisc. Techniques to locate multiple generators with VSP datad. Q estimation and Q compensation with VSP data5. Reservoir Monitoring and Reservoir Properties (1.5 hrs)a. Time Lapse 3D VSP for reservoir monitoringb. Elastic FWI (VSP Inversion)6. Advanced Acquisition (1.5hrs)a. Seismic while drillingb. Distributed Acoustic SensingTiming of sections may change. The course is targeted toward those who have a basic understandingof surface seismic acquisition and processing, but only limited knowledgeof borehole seismic. The course is designed to help participantsidentify borehole seismic solutions to common seismic interpretationproblems. It is also be useful for those geophysicists needing higherresolution images than surface seismic can provide, and those geophysicistswho need to validate seismic processing parameters andimaging models using borehole seismic. Lastly, the course is relevantfor geophysicists wanting to learn how to use borehole seismic as acost-effective reservoir monitoring tool. Participants are assumed to have knowledge of seismic responseto earth reflectivity. Participants should be aware of common welllogging
GeophysicsSurface ImagingFull-Waveform Inversion: Where are the Anisotropic Parameters Hiding?
By Prof. Tariq Alkhalifah (KAUST, Saudi Arabia)
Tariq Alkhalifahanisotropy imaging isotropy migration minerals oil and gas velocities wave equation wave propagationThe course starts by introducing the fundamentals of full-waveforminversion (FWI) starting from its basic definition. It focuses on themodel update issues and provides analysis of its probable success inconverging to a plausible model. In the course we will discuss themany challenges we face in applying FWI on seismic data and introducemodern day proposed solutions to these challenges. The focusof the course will be on FWI applied to anisotropic media. As a result,the course will also introduce anisotropy, its optimal parametrizationand wavefield simulation in such media. Practical multi-parameterinversion for anisotropic parameters requires an optimal FWI setup.We will discuss such a setup, which includes the proper parametrizationof the medium and data access scheme necessary for a potentialconvergence to a plausible anisotropic model. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to understand:•he scientific foundation behind full-waveform inversion;•WI challenges;•ave propagation in anisotropic media;•nisotropy + migration velocity analysis;•nisotropy + FWI. I - Introduction to seismic inversion:1. What is inversion?2. What do we mean by full waveform inversion?3. The Algorithm.II - The elements of seismic waveform inversion:1. Model and data.2. The objective function.3. The update.4. The sensitivity kernel.5. The non-linear issue.6. Examples.III - Seismic anisotropy:1. Definition and parameters.2. The acoustic anisotropic wave equation.3. Fundamental issues.IV - FWI and anisotropy:1. Multi-parameter inversion.2. The right set of parameters.3. The anisotropic sensitivity kernels.4. Getting an initial model.5. Anisotropy and MVA. The course is designed for geophysics, mathematicians and physicistsworking on problems related to seismic imaging of the Earth andbuilding the necessary velocity models to do so. Participants should have some knowledge on the physics of seismicwave
GeophysicsSurface ImagingApplied Depth Imaging
By Dr Ruben Martinez (Reservoir Geoscience, United States)
Ruben Martinez3d anisotropy depth migration full wavefield interpretation modeling near surface rtm salt shale traveltime water wide azimuthHydrocarbons are increasingly more difficult to find because reservoirsare often located in geologically complex areas. This geologicalcomplexity has motivated a significant paradigm shift from timeimaging towards the extensive use of seismic depth imaging. Depthimaging improves the definition of the structural and stratigraphicframeworks and provides a better assessment and mitigation of riskin E&P.The goal of this course is for the participant to gain an understandingof the basic concepts and practical aspects used in building velocitymodels and seismic images in the depth domain in an intuitive manner.The participant will also be exposed to depth imaging practicescurrently in use by geophysicists and geoscientists through the descriptionof workflows illustrated with synthetic and field data examples.The practical aspects are emphasized throughout the course.At the end of the course, the emerging depth imaging technologiesare reviewed for the participant to make informed decisions aboutwhat technology to use in future E&P projects. The aim of this course is focused on depth imaging concepts andapplications for complex geology areas. At the end of the course, theparticipant will be able to:1. Understand the fundamentals of seismic migration;2. Explain the pitfalls of time imaging;3. Describe the differences between time and depth seismic imagingfor simple and complex geological structures and stratigraphy;4. Discuss basic seismic acquisition parameters influencing the qualityof the seismic images in complex geology areas;5. Understand the strengths and weaknesses of the most popularprestack depth migration methods;6. Recognize the limitations of the seismic data to produce optimumseismic images for complex structural and stratigraphic frameworks;7. Describe velocity estimation methods required for specific explorationand field development scenarios;8. Explain the impact of velocity anisotropy on the quality of depthimages and its effect on the spatial positioning of geologicalstructures and well ties;9. Define and/ or choose depth imaging workflows for specific E&Pscenarios such as sub-salt, pre-salt, thrust belt, sub-basalt, complexcarbonates and clastics;10. Judge the quality of seismic depth images for a geologic interpretation;11. Interpret depth-imaged data;12. Make informed decisions to choose depth imaging workflowsand technologies to be used in a given exploration or field developmentproject;13. Effectively communicate about emerging depth imaging methodsand technology. 1. Introduction to the course.2. Seismic migration fundamentals.3. Understanding seismic velocities.4. Practical understanding of velocity anisotropy.5. Review of velocity estimation methods used for depth imaging.6. Seismic data conditioning for depth imaging.7. Isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and imaging inpractice.8. Optimization of seismic images for a more reliable geologic interpretation.9. Overview of emerging velocity model building and imaging methods. This course is designed for geophysicists, geoscientists and timeprocessing and interpretation specialists seeking a practical understandingof depth velocity model building and imaging. It is desirable that the participants have a basic knowledge aboutseismic acquisition, processing and interpretation. Some basics ofstructural geology, stratigraphy and well logging are also desirablebut not
GeophysicsSurface ImagingBeyond Conventional Seismic Imaging
By Prof. Evgeny Landa (Tel Aviv University, Israel)
Evgeny Landadepth migration diffraction faults fractures full wavefield imaging inversion stacking time migration traveltime uncertainty unconventional velocities wave propagationI. Wavefield Data AnalysisTime images usually provide sufficient information for a variety ofsubsurface models of moderate complexity and facilitate the estimationof the model for depth migration. Improving the quality of timesections remains the focus of intensive research. In particular, a lotof efforts are directed towards improving the accuracy of moveoutcorrection. The proposed course discusses time imaging proceduressuch as Multifocusing and Common Reflection Surface when eachimage trace is constructed by stacking traces which need not belongto the same CMP gather. In this case a new and more general moveoutcorrection is requested. These new methods open a way forreliable wavefield analysis and wavefront parameters estimation. Thelatest represents a basis for different applications including signal enhancement,velocity model building, statics correction, AVO analysis.II. Seismic DiffractionCurrently applied seismic processing and imaging are almost exclusivelybased on seismic reflection. The latest is the response tocontinuity in the subsurface. At the same time accurate and reliableimaging of small scale geological elements and discontinuities of thesubsurface such as faults, unconformity, fractures etc. are a key toimprove seismic resolution. In unconventional reservoirs the mainobjective is detection of fracture corridors. Small scale objects giverise to a diffraction response. Use of seismic diffraction is a rapidlyemerging technology which has tremendous potential to reduceexploration and production risks and increase oil and gas recovery.The course integrates elements of the theory of wave propagation,diffraction modeling and imaging, and interpretation. The main objectivesare: understanding the role of small and medium scale subsurfaceobjects and elements in forming the total seismic wavefieldand using diffraction for imaging.III. Imaging without precise knowledge of the subsurfacevelocity modelIn the proposed course I introduce a way to look at model-independentseismic imaging using the quantum mechanics concept. CanFeynman’ path-integral idea be used for seismic imaging? We canconstruct the seismic image by summation over the contributionsof elementary signals propagated along a representative sample ofpossible paths between the source and receiver points. When the velocitymodel is estimated with uncertainties, a single stationary pathdoes not produce a correctly focused subsurface image. In contrary,quantum imaging uses all possible trajectories accounts for multiplestationary paths and takes into account model uncertainties.IV. Pitfalls and challenges of seismic inversionProposed solutions are usually based on the criterion of the best fitbetween calculated and observed data. But it is well understood thatby itself, a good fit does not guarantee that an inverted model iscorrect. Seismic inversion may lead to construction of several subsurfacemodels with significantly different geological meaning, all ofwhich fit the observed data equally well. The ill-posedness of seismicinverse problems is fundamental and does not depend on a particulartype of algorithm or on the approach underlying the algorithms. Inthis course, I formulate a number of fundamental questions whichshould be addressed to make the inverse problems a mature sciencerather than a set of recipes.V. Time Reversal in SeismicTime Reversal (TR) plays an important role in seismic. It is directly connectedto reverse time migration, interferometry and virtual sourcemethods. Recently time reversal is proposed to localize subsurfacesources in passive seismic and scatterers in active seismic surveys.Unlike in conventional migration, time reversal approach, in principle,does not require application of imaging condition. Numericalimplementation of the time reversal method uses back propagationof the time-reversed recorded wavefield followed by an analysis of itsobtained focusing. The physical implementation of TR, called TimeReversal Mirror (TRM), is used in various applications: underwateracoustics, telecommunication, cancer therapy, lithotripsy, nondestructivetesting, etc. I demonstrate physical implementation of theTRM in seismic. Results of the field experiment show very promisingresults. I discuss possible applications of the method in seismic explorationand production. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:1. Understand the role of time and depth imaging withing the generalexploration work-flow.2. Understand the differences between several prestack data analysisapproaches, in particular CMP, CRS andincrease MF.3. Appreciate importance and potential of seismic diffraction forincrease resolution and reliability of seismic imaging.4. Understand the uncertain nature of seismic velocity model andacquaintance to a way of taking the uncertainties into account.5. Understand and admit fundamental problems of seismic inversionincluding FWI. Introduction•rom statistics to determinism•vercoming uncertaintiesI. Non CMP-based methods for data analysis and imaging•ime versus depth imaging•hy CMP method works?•on-hyperbolic moveout•hy CMP method fails?•on-CMP based moveout: principles•avefront parameter estimation: Multifocusing and CommonReflection Stack•pplications: signal enhancement, statics correction, multipleattenuation, stack, migrationII. Seismic Diffraction•eflections versus difraction•istory•odeling•iffraction imaging•avefield separation•ase studiesIII. Imaging without precise velocity model: Quantum seismic imaging•eynman “ath-summation”icture of the world•ath-summation seismic imagingIV. Pitfalls and challenges of seismic inversion•nversion –hinking backward•on-uniqueness of geophysical inversion•WI: the present statusV. Time Reversal in Seismic Participants should have a basic knowledge of seismic data acquisitionand processing, static correction, CMP stacking for zero-offsetapproximation, normal moveout (NMO) correction, velocity analysis,semblance coherency measure, ray theory. Basic knowledge of seismic data acquisition and processing. staticcorrection, CMP stacking for zero-offset approximation, normalmoveout (NMO) correction, velocity analysis, semblance coherencymeasure, dip moveout. Basic knowledge in ray
GeophysicsSurface ImagingFull-Waveform Inversion for High-Resolution Reservoir Characterization
By Prof. Dr Dries Gisolf (Delft Inversion, Netherlands)
Dries Gisolfavo elasticity fourier interpretation kirchhoff radon transform reflection scattering wave equation waveletThe purpose of this course is to teach participants the fundamentalsof extracting quantitative property information from seismic data.In the end this leads to an inversion process, which is called linear ifthe data are supposed to consist in primaries only and is non-linearif all multiple scattering and multiple mode conversion over a targetinterval (typically 500 m around the reservoir) is taken into account.Non-linear inversion leads to a higher resolution than obtained fromconventional linear inversion techniques.All steps required in these processes are based on wave equationsand it is important, therefore, to have a good understanding ofacoustic and elastic wave equations. In linear (AVO) inversion, firstthe reflection coefficients are derived from the data and subsequentlythe rock properties are derived from the reflection coefficients. Innon-linear inversion, the properties are directly derived from the data.Non-linear inversion is an iterative process of which the first iteration(the Born approximation) represents the linear inversion result. Themethod is based on an integral representation of the wave equation.An important aspect of reservoir oriented full-waveform inversion(FWI-res) is that the surface recorded data are localized (focused)to the target area. This can be achieved by redatuming or by localdemigration of migrated data.Both the linear AVO data model in terms of reflection coefficientsand the non-linear data model in terms of property contrasts againstbackgrounds are presented. Inversion, linear, or non-linear, requiresregularization. Several regularization options are presented.Finally, linear and non-linear inversions at the reservoir scale aredemonstrated by highly realistic synthetic reservoir models and realdata case studies. The real data case studies include the extraction oflow-frequency models (backgrounds) from well data and the extractionof angle dependent wavelets from the seismic-to-well match. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand what quantitative property information is contained inseismic data and how to extract it.•ake better judgements as to what inversion method to apply towhat problem.•dopt a more quantitative approach to seismic-to-well matchingand low frequency background model extraction•urther the role of reservoir geophysics in multidisciplinary projects. •ntroduction•hort recap on complex integral transforms (Fourier, Laplace, F/Kand linear Radon)•he acoustic wave equation in inhomogeneous media•ntegral representations of the acoustic wave equation; Kirchhoff-Rayleigh and the Scattering Integral (Lippmann-Schwinger)•he AVO data model; Zoeppritz reflection coefficients•inear inversion of AVO data including regularisation; syntheticand real data examples•he non-linear data model for inversion; data equation and objectequation; iterative, multiplicatively regularised inversion•pplications based on an elastic full wavefield non-linear datamodel; realistic synthetic reservoir study, real data case studiesincluding low- frequency model extraction and seismic-to-wellmatching. Synthetic time-lapse example. This course is designed for geophysicists active in reservoirs and/orquantitative interpretation and processing geophysicists who wouldlike to become involved in quantitative interpretation. Participants should have a basic training in geophysics and mathematics,particularly complex numbers and
GeophysicsSurface ImagingMigration and Velocity Model Building
By Piet Gerritsma (Gerritsma Geophysical Training and Consultancy, Netherlands)
Piet Gerritsmadepth migration imaging inversion time migration tomography traveltime velocities wave equationThe process of migration, whereby a proper image in time or depth ofthe subsurface is obtained, is directly related with the velocity modelthat both serves as input for the migration process as well as is the resultof such a migration. Therefore migration and velocity model buildingare intimately related processes. The implementation of migration ischaracterized by a multitude of methods and algorithms; there is also agreat variety of methods to build a velocity model. This course providesan overview of the migration principles, methods and algorithms andan overview of velocity model building principles and methods andalgorithms. Examples and case studies will conclude this course. At the end of the course the participants will have obtained a completeoverview and thorough understanding of the many alternativemethods and algorithms that are currently in use in imaging andvelocity model building.The course emphasizes for each method the underlying geophysicalmodel together with its assumptions and strengths and weaknesses;many examples will be shown to illustrate the material; theory withreferences will be included; a handout that covers all course materialwill be made available. The following steps in Migration, DMO and Velocity Model Buildingwill be discussed:1. Migration or imaging•igration, modelling and inversion•eometric approach to migration•xamples•esolution before and after migration•liasing•ay definitions•he Dix equations•efinition of time migration and depth migration•he acoustic wave equation•actorization of the wave equation•orward and inverse wavefield extrapolation in depth•igration principles; the imaging conditions•igration of various data sets:- Shot profile migration- Survey sinking or redatuming- Zero-offset data migration•xtended imaging conditions (time-shift and/or space-shift)•igration algorithms:- k,f)-migration (Stolt)- Phase-shift migration (Gazdag)- Phase-shift-plus-interpolation (PSPI) migration- Split-step-Fourier (SSF) migration- Extended split-step Fourier (ESSF) migration•he Kirchhoff integral, the Rayleigh integral and Green’ functions•irchhoff (= summation or diffraction stack) migration•igration by double focused array synthesis•aussian beam migration•everse time migration —TM•igration and demigration2. Velocity model building•inimal data sets and common image gathers —IG’•terative velocity model building with CIG’•he migration conditions•igration and traveltime inversion•igration and demigration•ormal incidence wavefront curvature and stacking velocity•elocity model parameterization•elocity model building methods:- coherency inversion or model based stack- map migration- dynamic map migration (DMM) or curvature inversion- stereotomography- traveltime inversion (TTI)- traveltime inversion in the migrated domain (TIMD)- common focus panel (CFP) analysis- tomographic velocity model building- depth focusing analysis (DFA)- WEMVA: wave-equation migration velocity analysis- differential semblance optimization (DSO)- full waveform inversion (FWI)4. Case studies —xamples•omography•ull Wave Inversion•elocity Model Building•arametric Velocity Estimation ocessing and interpretation ` geologists and petrophysicists who wishto understand how the various types of velocity information can bederived from seismic data and who wish to understand how subsurfaceimages are generated.As the material covers the theory and practical implementations ofpresent day practices, this course is relevant for those who are freshfrom university as well as for those who wish to be updated on thenewest developments. Participants should have a basic understandingof seismic acquisition and processing practices. Course participants should have a basic understanding of seismicacquisition and processing
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsSeismic Diffraction – Modeling, Imaging and Applications
By Dr Tijmen Jan Moser (Moser Geophysical Services, Netherlands)
Tijmen Jan Moserdiffraction high-resolution imaging full illumination structural and stratigraphic interpretation channels fluid-escape pipes faults fractures carbonates well planning case studyThe application of seismic diffraction imaging (DI) in the E&P industryhas rapidly accelerated in recent years and is now positioned to makea major impact as a routine method combined with PSTM and PSDM.This is because the uplift in resolution and detectability of small scalefeatures offered through the imaging of the diffracted wavefield isfundamentally superior to attributes derived from post-processing ofthe reflection image. Applications cover a very wide range of objectivessuch as faults, fractures, karsts, stratigraphic edges, channels,fluid escape pipes, volcanic pipes, injectites.This course covers both the forward and inverse problem of seismicdiffraction. The coverage of the forward problem extends from thediscovery of the phenomenon of diffraction and the basic formulationsof Fresnel and Kirchhoff to the evolution of modern seismicdiffraction modeling. Diffraction imaging will be covered from theearly works in the 1970s up to the present state of the art. Casestudies will be presented covering examples for both structural andstratigraphic targets.The course will put emphasis on key components for successful DIcase studies:•ull integration of all available data, such as well data, legacy seismic,prior interpretation•ptimal focusing during pre-processing, model building and migration•alibration of DI by Fresnel zone sampling to identify differentcomponents of the wavefield offering different interpretationperspectives•alidation of DI by forward modeling exercises at various scales(elementary conceptual models, bespoke models, full-detail scenarios)•ustomization to interpretation throughout the workflow Upon completion of this course, the participants will:•ave a detailed and up-to-date understanding of the physics ofdiffraction, diffraction modeling and imaging•e able to effectively communicate the key aspects of diffractiontechnology with other professionals•ave a good understanding of the added value that seismic diffractionbrings to current exploration and production projects First day (4 hrs)1. Introduction•otivation, basic ideas and concepts•eflection versus diffraction•pplications of diffraction analysis and imaging•nterpretation value2. History•iscovery and founding years (1650-1820): Grimaldi, Huygens,Newton, Young, Fresnel, Poisson, Arago•calar diffraction: mathematical foundation —9th century:Green, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, Sommerfeld•owards Geometrical Theory of Diffraction —arly 20th century:Maggi, Rubinowicz, Keller•owards Modern Theory: Trorey, Klem-Musatov3. Diffraction Modeling•otivation, definitions, objectives•hysical modeling•umerical modeling: integral methods, boundary layer methods,surface and caustic diffraction, finite differences, time-lapse, scatteringmethodsSecond day (4 hrs)4. Imaging•otivation, definitions, objectives•natomy of diffraction•iffraction and standard processing•etection of diffracted waves•eparation of diffracted waves•nversion of diffracted waves•maging•ommon Reflection Surface/Multifocusing•ocusing and velocity estimation•racture detection•odel-based diffraction imaging•llumination: edge and tip diffraction imaging•esolution and super-resolution•mage processing and diffraction imagingThird day (4 hrs)5. Applications/case studies•arbonate Shales, Carbonate Ridges•aults And Fractures, Fault Detection, Reservoir Fault Interpretation,Fractured reservoirs, Basement Fractures•luid Escape Features, Volcanic Pipes, Vertically Aligned Objects•hannels•round-Penetrating Radar Case Study The course is designed for a general audience of geophysicists, geologistsand reservoir engineers. Prerequisites are a basic knowledge of seismic processing and imagingand a very elementary mathematical background.Recommended readingKlem-Musatov K., Hoeber H.C., Moser T.J. and Pelissier M.A. (editors)2016. Classical and Modern Diffraction Theory, GeophysicalReprint Series Nr 29, SEG.Klem-Musatov K., Hoeber H.C., Moser T.J. and Pelissier M.A. (editors)2016. Seismic Diffraction, Geophysical Reprint Series Nr 30,
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsCase Studies and Practical Considerations in Geophysical Acquisition and Processing Methods
By Luca de Vincenzi (Ocre, Belgium)
Luca de Vincenziborehole geophysics case study depth migration electromagnetism environmental gravity hsse land seismic magnetics marine seismic remote sensing reservoir characterization signal processingThis course emphasizes how the aims of the G&G interpretation andthe exploration targets have to be understood before starting thepreparation of the explorations activities.The in-field operations will be presented through a very comprehensiveset of case studies both using large and small field crews in orderto familiarize the Attendees to the research of the less expensive andmore technical appropriate solution.After a preliminary G&G introduction, the course describes how theexpected goals of the geophysical survey are elaborated with theG&G interpreters, who work in the area of study. An estimation ofthe relative budget and procurement procedures shall be quantifiedwith the Legal, Finance and the Exploration Departments.The HSSE Impact Assessment, including the utilisation of satellitephotographs and the scouting in the area of study, are of paramountimportance for the survey design and the future management of theoperations in the field.The Invitation to Tender and related evaluation is the link betweenthe preparation phase and the field operationsAfter definition of the technical program in the field, relations withGovernmental Authorities and people living in the area of the surveystart in order to carry out the mobilisation of the crew in a smoothway without financial-wise dangerous frictions with local population.Last, but not least, the supervision (HSSE and QC) of the survey shallbe organised.All the technical, HSSE, logistic, political, and financial aspects of themobilisation will be described using real cases.A very wide range of acquisition, processing, interpretation andexploration well results will be presented as, for example, but notlimited to: 2D, 3D, 4C, Ocean Bottom Nodes, Transition Zones, simultaneoussources, wide azimuth seismic, broadband seismic, onshoreseismic survey using a combination of explosive and vibroseis. Alltopics are described using case histories and integrated with in-classexercises.Benefit of real-time processing in a remote processing centre via datatransfer by satellite (when applicable) will be emphasized.Demobilisation will complete the in-field aspect.Processing will be presented focusing the attention on imaging (signal/noise, vertical and lateral resolutions), Time-to-Depth conversion(PSTM, PSDM), and reservoir characterisation (dual trace inversion,acoustic vs. elastic impedance plots, estimation of fluids and physicalproperties of rocks).Exploration well results are presented and discussed.A portion of the course is allocated to the integrated reprocessing oflegacy geophysical and integration with geological data to be appliedas a propaedeutic exercise with two objectives:1. to design the more efficient and less expensive exploration phase,and2. to have a provisional work-flow of the processing sequence,subject to adjustments after data recording in the field, in orderto invite to tender for acquisition and processing of the survey inone go. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:1. have a complete outline from the exploration licence awardinguntil the understanding of the exploration well results,2. know the advantages, the limits, the challenges and the pitfalls ofthe Geophysics applied to the O&G exploration,3. manage the complex relationships between Oil&Gas Companies,Service Contractors and local authorities and population,4. have a better work integration and sinergies with staffs of theother related departments, DAY 1Part 1: IntroductionA. Geological basin analysis (with case studies and exercises)B. Outline of geophysical methods (Seismic, Gravity, Magnetic,Magnetotelluric, Remote sensing)Part 2: Preparation of a geophysical survey (with case studies andexercises)A. Definition of exploration targetsLegacy data evaluation and interpretationLegacy data reprocessingG&G integrationB. Preliminary studies in the fieldSatellite imagesHSSE studyEnvironmental Impact AssessmentIn-field scouting and relationships with local authorities/populationsC. Geophysical survey propaedeutic to seismicD. Invitation to tender (acquisition, processing, HSSE&QC supervision)DAY 2Part 3: Seismic survey (onshore and offshore, with case studies andexercises)A. Principle and methodologyB. Preparation of the surveyC. AcquisitionMobilizationEquipment testWork in the fieldSurvey management and HSSE (supervision)In-field processingRestorationDemobilizationC. Seismic data processingFilters and deconvolutionsStackingMigration (PostSTM,PSTM/PSDM) and Time-to-Depth conversionDAY 3Part 4: AirMag survey (with case studies and exercises)A. Principle and methodologyB. Survey preparation including authorities approvalC. Acquisition (airborn or on land/water)D. ProcessingE. Interpretation and G&G integrationPart 5: Magnetotelluric (with case studies and exercises)A. Principle and methodologyB. Survey preparation including authorities approvalC. AcquisitionD. ProcessingE. Interpretation and G&G integrationPart 6: Remote sensing (with case studies and exercises)A. PrincipleSatellite and aircraft recprdingsMultispectral methodologiesPassive and active methodologiesB. Survey preparation including authorities approvalC. AcquisitionD. ProcessingE. Interpretation and G&G integrationDAY 4Part 7: Interpretation (with case studies and exercises)A. Multidisciplinary integrationB. Qualitative geological facies and fluid content evaluationC. Quantitative reservoir characterisationD. Exploration well location (including logistic)E. Borehole seismicF. Exploration well resuls evaluationG. Integration and updating of the prognosed vs. actual resulsPart 8A. Open discussionB. Wrap-upC. Way forward Geophysical (in particular seismic) acquisition and processing users,who wishes to understand the overall chain from the awarding of theexploration licence until the proposal of the exploration well and, incase of success, the location of the appreciation well.Interpreters and explorationists, who wish to gain some knowledgeof geophysical acquisition, processing and reservoir characterisationtechniques, their application in exploration and advantages, the limites,the challenges and the pitfalls of the Geophysics applied to theO&G exploration.People involved in procurement, HSSE, or providing legal support, oryoung engineers, who wishes to have an outline of the geophysicalsurvey applied to the hydrocarbon exploration. Neither a geophysical background, nor mathematics skill is mandatory:because the key for the success of a project is not to have afew experts, but that all involved actors understand what the othersdepartments and users are doing and
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsGeostatistics for Seismic Data Integration in Earth Models
By Olivier Dubrule (United Kingdom)
Olivier Dubrulefiltering interpolation inversion kriging mapping simulation spectral analysis velocitiesIn recent years the use of geostatistics has spread from the world ofreservoir characterization to that of velocity analysis, seismic inversion,uncertainty quantification, and more generally to that of seismicdata integration in earth models. Nevertheless, many geoscientistsstill regard geostatistics as little more than a statistical black box. Byexplaining the concepts and applications, this course clarifies thebenefits of geostatistics and helps spread its use.The course covers the use of geostatistics for interpolation (kriging,etc.), heterogeneity modeling (conditional simulation), uncertaintyquantification, and data integration (cokriging, geostatistical inversion,etc.). A variety of applications and examples are presented,including velocity mapping, construction of realistic heterogeneitymodels, and seismic data integration in stochastic earth models. Therelationships between geostatistics and approaches more familiarto geophysicists, such as filtering or Bayesian methods, are alsodiscussed, without entering into mathematical details. A number ofcase studies are presented, covering examples from various parts ofthe world.The short-course presentation provides an overview of basic conceptsand applications. The course notes provide a support to the courseand further extend some of the more technical considerations. As a result of attending this course, geoscientists will better understandhow geostatistics fits into their workflow, what tools andtechniques they should use depending on the problem at hand, andwhat added value may result from its use. More specifically, afterattending the course, geoscientists will be able to:•efine the right variogram to use in order to quantify their geologicalknowledge•ecognize and discuss the main assumptions that were made in agiven geostatistical study•nterpret the results of a geostatistical heterogeneity modelingexercise, whether based on kriging or conditional simulation•hoose among the various geostatistical modeling methods proposedby earth modeling software Part 1: What does the Variogram mean? Ordinary Kriging, ExternalDrift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging for combining seismic andwell data, Factorial Kriging for filtering seismic data.Part 2: Monte-Carlo Simulation, Conditional Simulation, GeostatisticalInversion and Earth Model Uncertainty Quantification. Geoscientists (including geologists, earth modelers, petrophysicists,geophysicists and reservoir engineers) who have been exposed toapplications of geostatistics but would like to improve their understanding. Very basic statistical knowledge, and ideally some exposure to existinggeostatistical software and
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsIntegrated Reservoir Modeling
By Prof. Dr Michael Poppelreiter (Shell, Kuwait)
Michael Poppelreiter3d carbonates correlation geostatistics integration reservoir characterization well logThis outcrop-based course provides participants with an overview ofthe integrated reservoir modeling process, tools and tasks. The dataset is from a Tertiary carbonate reservoir. It exposes participants tohands-on integrated reservoir modeling.A conceptual reservoir model and a digital reservoir model areconstructed on paper and digitally. Common sedimentologicaltechniques such as section logging, gamma ray measurements andinterpretation of aspect ratios from photo panels and maps will bedemonstrated and practiced.All data required to build models are actual industry data. The uncertaintyof all data sets is assessed. Alternative models are constructed.QC of data versus interpretation is an integral part of the course.A strong emphasis is put on stratigraphic correlation frameworkand structural model building. Property modeling and volumetricsare carried out interactively as a team exercise. Team interaction is afundamental component of this course. Upon completion of the course, participants will be familiar with:•eservoir modeling workflow;•tructural model building;•onstruction of a stratigraphic framework;•cquisition and modeling of reservoir body dimensions on a regionaland local scale;•cquisition, measurement and application of petrophysical properties;•ntegration of data at different scales: thin sections, cores, outcroppanels, petrophysical data and regional geological informationdepositional system of Tertiary age;•ell exposed and exceptionally well-studied on a local and a regionalscale. •ntroduction•eview of statistical analysis and probability•art 1: Sources of uncertainty in geophysics and reservoir modeling•art 2: Modeling uncertainty in seismic reservoir characterization•art 3: Geostatistics and spatial uncertainty•art 4: Uncertainty and data integration•art 5: Structural uncertainty•art 6: Uncertainty in reservoir dynamic modeling•art 7: Visualizing uncertainty•art 8: Value of Information and decision making The course is designed for geologists, geophysicists, engineers,petrophysicists or others involved in reservoir modeling. Participants should have knowledge of geology and petrophysics.Students are expected to have a clear understanding of how to usePetrel software as well as some comprehension of the principles ofgeology and log
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsSeismic Attributes and Their Applications in Seismic Interpretation
By Dr Behzad Alaei (Earth Science Analytics, Norway)
Behzad Alaeidecomposition faults integration noise workflowsSeismic attributes have been increasingly used in both explorationand reservoir characterization and has been integrated in the seismicinterpretation process. Seismic attribute analysis can extractinformation from seismic data that is otherwise hidden and havebeen used to identify prospects, ascertain depositional environments(e.g. fluvial or deep water channels, carbonate buildups),detect and enhance faults and fracture sets to unravel structuralhistory, and even provide direct hydrocarbon indicators. They haveproven to be useful in different geological settings such as clastic,carbonate, and salt related basins as well as different tectonic regimesincluding extensional, strike-slip, and compressional. Developmentsin digital recording and modern visualization techniqueshad great impact on the growth of seismic attributes in the pastdecades. The purpose of this course is to introduce seismic attributeswith their applications in seismic interpretation using examplesfrom different sedimentary basins and also through certain attributeworkflows. It is aimed to provide geoscientists with the minimumrequired theory of how each attribute is generated, with agreater emphasis on the application in the exploration and reservoircharacterization.The course is divided into two parts: attributes review/applicationsand workflows. The first part starts with a review of seismic attributesand discusses the noise (random and coherent) reduction asone essential step of all attribute studies. The number of seismicattributes has recently increased dramatically causing confusionfor geoscientists to select appropriate ones. In this course, trace-based attributes, volumetric dip and azimuth, fault detection andenhancement attributes, volumetric curvature, and frequencydecomposition are presented using examples from different geologicalsettings. Frequency decomposition is briefly presentedwith different decomposition methods such as wavelet transform,Fourier transform and matching pursuit analysis. Examples illustratethe interpretation challenges associated with frequency decompositiondata interpretation. The concept of multi-attributes andgeobody extraction is introduced at the end of the first part of thecourse with examples on combinations of amplitude, phase, discontinuityand frequency attributes to visualize different geologicalobjects.In the second part of the course stratigraphic and structural workflowsare presented. The workflows (and the elements for their planning)aim to show the integration of several attributes for specific interpretationpurposes, with examples of stratigraphic (fluvial/shallowmarine clastic systems, attribute expressions of deep water turbiditesand carbonate settings) and structural imaging workflows. Lastly, thecourse analyses the importance of the integration of seismic attributeanalysis processes with the other seismic interpretation (qualitative orquantitative) workflows. Upon completion, participants will be familiar with a range ofrelevant attributes used in seismic exploration and reservoir characterization.They will know the basics of how those attributes werecalculated and will gain understanding of their applications in seismicinterpretation. They will be able to plan some attribute workflowsand they will know how to integrate attribute analysis with otherdisciplines of qualitative/quantitative seismic interpretation. Part I: Seismic Attributes•ntroduction:- Definition and historical review- Structure of the short course•nput data cleaning:- Noise reduction applications with examples- Workflow oriented noise removal process- Focus on structurally oriented edge preserving methods to removenoise- Mean and median filters for noise removal•race-based attributes:- Complex trace analysis and the elementary attributes of envelope(reflection strength), instantaneous phase, instantaneousfrequency, and cosine of phase attributes- Simple examples with interpretation applications•ip and Azimuth volumes:•uantitative estimate of dip and azimuth through seismic volumesto map morphology of seismic texture•ntroduction and theory•ip and Azimuth calculation methods including:- Calculating temporal and spatial derivatives of the phase estimatedusing complex trace analysis- Explicit dip scan to find the most coherent reflector- Gradient structure tensor•xamples with applications for both structural and stratigraphicinterpretation aspects.5. Coherence (Measurements of the similarity of seismic waveform)•ntroduction•ifferent approaches including:- Cross correlation- Semblance- Variance- Eigenstructure- Gradient structure Tensor-based coherence•ole of dip and azimuth steering volumes on coherence calculation•everal examples and interpretation criteria6. Fault attributes, attribute enhancement approaches:•dentify objects representing faults from background noise.•pply filters to enhance already detected faults from backgroundnoise.•lan different filter sizes to enhance faults with different scales(regional to small scale).7. Curvature attribute:•efinition and background theory•urface and volume curvature measurements•nterpretation applications using some examples8. Frequency decomposition:•ntroduction and mathematics of spectral decomposition usinggraphic illustrations•eview of decomposition methods:- DFT (discrete Fourier transform)- CWT (continuous wavelet transform)- MPD (matching pursuit decomposition)•xamples and applications in layer thickness estimation, stratigraphicvariations (seismic facies) and Direct Hydrocarbon detection•on-uniqueness will be addressed together with resultant challengesin interpretation of frequency decomposed data9. Multi attributes, geobody extraction, and iso proportional slicing:•ome attribute blending methods such as RGB blending, andopacity blending•eological object identification•achine learning examples of multi attributes•election of appropriate attributes•uantitative extraction of certain attribute volumes•so proportional slicing as an important interpretation toolPart II: Workflows•eismic attribute analysis workflow planning:- Stratigraphic, structural, reservoir characterization- Factors controlling the seismic attribute workflow planning•orkflow examples: fault imaging, carbonate imaging•ntegration of attribute analysis with other disciplines of seismicinterpretation The course addresses geoscientists involved in exploration andproduction projects where seismic studies play a role and who wishto learn the basic theory of the main seismic attributes used in explorationand production, as well as their applications and how tointegrate them in exploration and reservoir characterization studies. Participants should have knowledge of seismic interpretation. Mathematicalconcepts of attributes are presented with minimum requiredequations and graphic illustrations. Some basic knowledge of seismicexploration may
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsSeismic Interpretation: Fundamental for Prospect Generation
By Dean Powell (Powell Seismic Services, Australia)
Dean Powell
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(000246–9 Sep 2022)
2d case study depth conversion faults interpretation land seismic mapping oil and gas rock physics seismic attributes seismic stratigraphySeismic data provide us with a response from the subsurface, ratherthan a model of the subsurface. The challenge for the seismic interpreteris to understand this response, manipulate it in accurate andcreative ways in order to model the geology that gave rise to it, andin the process identify drilling targets.This course is designed to help geoscientists meet that challenge byassisting them to:•nderstand the basics of seismic acquisition and processing,•ain familiarity with qualitative and quantitative aspects of theseismic interpretation process,•tilize various interpretation techniques and tools,•dentify and avoid obstacles that limit the reliability of an interpretation,•pproach interpretation problems with creativity and perseverance,•pply sound geological reasoning,•uild an understanding of how the ingredients can be integratedto constitute a reliable interpretation,•valuate the risk of exploration success,•ourney through the interpretation process to the choice of a drillinglocation.The course utilizes a comprehensive 2D interpretation exercise basedon an actual exploration scenario. This exercise is tackled in differentstages throughout the course, helping participants to progressivelyincorporate the many aspects of the interpretation process, from theearly stages of understanding the geological setting and making thestratigraphic correlations, followed by fault interpretation and horizonmapping, through to depth conversion and geological modeling.Additional exercises and case histories complement the classroominstruction, helping participants develop an open and creative mindsetto broader exploration objectives as well as to the detail requiredfor prospect generation. This mindset is one that looks for value incontributions from outside the strictly geophysical arena and alsoincorporates the geological risking process as a means of injectingrigor into the interpretation process.Reinforcing the lessons gained from the major interpretation exercise,the concluding case history provides a further illustration of theintegration of the available geotechnical data to achieve a successfuloutcome. This is not a survey design course. Survey design is discussed but notcovered in detail. After attending this course, the participant will:•ecognize the limitations imposed on a seismic dataset by acquisitionand processing specifications;•dentify key mapping horizons and play types in a seismic dataset;•ranslate the seismic image into a realistic geological model;•enerate credible hydrocarbon prospects. Day 1•he background: Basic geophysics•he preparation: Understanding the geology > Exercise stage 1•he kick-off: Early observations > Exercise stage 2•he map: Structural interpretation > Exercise stage 3Day 2•he model: Seismic stratigraphy•he detail: Quantitative interpretation > Exercise stage 4•he risk: Prospect evaluation > Exercise stage 5•he background: Basic geophysics All those interested in seismic imagery. The acquisition geophysicistmay discover an unfamiliar presentation of familiar concepts. Theprocessing geophysicist may discover the causes of some types ofperturbations in seismic images. Likewise, the interpreter may gainunderstanding of the limitations in seismic images. Those in chargeof financing these images may understand better why they are soexpensive. The course is designed especially for early-career geophysicistsand geologists as well as students in geoscience disciplines. It willalso benefit other professionals involved in oil and gas exploration,particularly engineers and managers who wish to gain a better understandingof the role of seismic data in identifying drilling targetsand to make a more informed assessment of the risk associated thedecision to drill an exploration
GeophysicsIntegrated GeophysicsSub-Surface Uncertainty Evaluation (SUE)
By Manish Agarwal (Applied Geoscience Pty Ltd, Australia)
Manish Agarwal
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(0002124–26 Aug 2022)
anisotropy interpretation reservoir modeling tomography uncertainty wells workflowsINTRODUCTION TO SEISMIC UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION1. Sources of Uncertainties (Data Acquisition, processing & Interpretation).2. Validation with data examples on assessment/quantification &qualifications following standard industry practices. Introductionto new learning techniques/technology.3. Value addition on how the course will benefit an interpreter, geologist,and a Reservoir Engineer.SEISMIC UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT1. Geological factors influence on Velocities2. Review and evaluate various types of velocity (Average, RMS,Stacking, Migration, Pseudo, P&S).SEISMIC UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATIONS1. Construct geologically reasonable velocity models from the data(include synthetic seismograph creations and concept of geological/geophysical well markers).Hard and soft approaches.2. Map migration, structural modelling & stochastic depth conversion.3. Advance WCT(Well Constrained Tomography) workflows to constructgeologically plausible models.SEISMIC UNCERTAINTY QUALIFICATIONS1. Quantifications to qualification stage: Blind well analysis,equiprobable model, multiple regression models..2. Update depth conversion models adaptable to local geology andtest them through amplitude shut-offs and closure maps3. Evaluate structural uncertainties by performing Monte Carlo simulationon best reference depth maps4. Evaluate the products from the multiple realizations: Probabilitydistribution maps, multi-seed structures, amplitude conformance Seismic Uncertainty Analysis is a three fold approach to support wellplanning:•ssessment, Quantification & Qualification•ata Analytics is a must to understand data leading to decision(Data2Decision)•earn to qualify and quantify your seismic uncertainties: Determinsiticand Stochastic•eploy Equiprobable models for Uncertainty assessments andqualifications•onte Carlo regression engine provides a relatively optimum P10/P50/P90 Volumetric ranges•ncertainty reporting and well planning Day 1 -4HRSSEISMIC UNCERTAINTIES ASSESSMENT•tandard practices to evaluate and estimate the Seismic DepthUncertainties•isk and Myths•hy Quantification & Qualification of seismic depth uncertaintiesis important in E&P?QUANTIFICATION OF UNCERTAINTIES (SEIS2WELLS)•eterministic Depth Conversion–ard And Soft Approaches•robabilistic Depth Conversion –ariogram & uncertainty modelling•dditional Techniques : Map Migration, Equiprobable modelsADVANCED RAY BASED DEPTH CALIBRATION (WELL TOMO)•omography Approach For Geological Plausible Velocity Models :Vertical Ray Tomography•hy it is better de-risking model? Predictions away from the harddataQUANTIFICATION TO QUALIFICATION•lind Well Analysis to test the best technical cases•ultiple regression models•quiprobable modellingDay 2 -4HRSQUALIFICATION OF UNCERTAINTIES: DRILL READY SEISMIC (DRS)•tructural Flexing To Compute Probabilistic Volumetrics•pill Point Control And Amplitude Conformance Volumetrics•ingle And Multi-Seed Closures•robability And Iso-Probability Closure Maps•tacked Reservoir VolumetricsDEPTH RISKING SCORECARD•ncertainty Risking Scorecard•epth Uncertainty Communication•ell Planning and Decision Making from the Uncertainty Cube•ITFALLS & GENERAL DISCUSSIONS•ase Studies•&A The course is designed for Geologist, Geophysicist, drilling Engineersand Reservoir Engineers. Participants require a working knowledge on basic exploration cycle.Recommended reading•ntegration of geology with depth conversion using Well-ConstrainedTomography, EAGE April 2016•anaging uncertainty to deliver complex development wells,AEGC September 2019•epth conversion and seismic inversion of the Scarborough gasfield, ASEG December 2019in-house-truenew-trueregistration-open-true
GeophysicsMineral ExplorationGeological Interpretation of Geophysical Data for Mineral Exploration
By Prof. Michael Dentith (The University of Western Australia, Australia)
Michael Dentithelectromagnetism gravity induced seismicity magnetics minerals polarisation radiometrics resistivityThe purpose of this course is to provide training in how to usegeophysical methods in mineral exploration. Designed for industry,government and student geologists seeking to understand how touse geophysical datasets to explore and map, and geophysicists seekingto include more geology in to their interpretations, this courseteaches participants to integrate geological and geophysical data ina mineral exploration context.Core topics include the basic principles of the main geophysicalexploration methods used in mineral exploration including the importanceof optimal processing and display of these data and thestrengths and limitations of the various methods. Particular attentionis paid to extracting the maximum amount of geological informationfrom the data, recognising noise-related artifacts in interpretationproducts and how to deal with the ambiguity when interpretinggeophysical datasets.The course includes practical exploration exercises involving realexploration data. On completion of the course participants will:•nderstand how to integrate geological and geophysical informationduring mineral exploration•ave the ability to solve exploration challenges using geophysicalmethods•e familiar with state-of-the-methods for analysing petrophysicaldata•nderstand the capabilities and limitations of the various geophysicaldata types•e aware of the importance of geophysics in the future of mineralexploration The course comprises modules, the inclusion of which depends onits duration.2 day course:1. Introduction to geophysics•. Geophysical methods used in mineral exploration•. Geophysical anomalies and their sources;•. Ambiguity•. Geophysical exploration practice•. Cost of geophysics2. Acquisition to display•. Signal and noise•. Sampling and survey design•. Data display3. Data enhancement•. Wavelength-based enhancement•. gradient-based enhancements;•. Amplitude-based enhancements4. Gravity and magnetic methods•. Basic principles of gravity and magnetism•. Reduction of gravity data –he influence of terrain•. Reduction of magnetic data –he importance of levelling•. Enhancing gravity and magnetic data (derivative-based enhancements,continuation, reduction to the pole)5. Qualitative interpretation•. Understanding petrophysics•. Beyond ‘eological pattern recognition’n image interpretation•. Geophysical expressions of common geological features•. Common pitfalls6. Quantitative interpretation•. Representing the sub-surface with a geophysical mode•. Forward modelling•. Inverse modelling•. Analysing a modelling result7. Electrical and electromagnetic methods•. Basic principles of electricity•. Electrical properties of rocks•. Resistivity method•. Induced polarisation method•. Basic principles of electromagnetism•. Electromagnetic data acquisition and interpretation5 day course:1. Introduction to geophysics•. Geophysical methods used in mineral exploration•. Geophysical anomalies and their sources•. Ambiguity•. Geophysical exploration practice•. Cost of geophysics2. Practical exercise 1 –eophysical anomalies and exploration strategy3. Acquisition to display•. Signal and noise•. Sampling and survey design•. Data display4. Practical exercise 2a - Data display5. Data enhancement•. Wavelength-based enhancement•. Gradient-based enhancements•. Amplitude-based enhancements6. Practical exercise 2b –ata enhancement7. Gravity and magnetic methods•. Basic principles of gravity and magnetism•. Reduction of gravity data –he influence of terrain•. Reduction of magnetic data –he importance of levelling•. Enhancing gravity and magnetic data (derivative-based enhancements,continuation, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity)8. Practical exercise 3a –nhancing gravity and magnetic data9. Petrophysics•. Best practice in data collection and analysis•. Rock and mineral density and magnetism•. Physical properties and common geological processes10. Practical exercise 3b –nalysis of petrophysical data11. Qualitative interpretation•. Beyond ‘eological pattern recognition’n image interpretation•. Geophysical expressions of common geological features•. Common pitfalls12. Practical exercise 3c –nterpretation of gravity and magneticmaps for exploration targeting13. Quantitative interpretation•. Representing the sub-surface with a geophysical model•. Regional-residual separation•. Forward modelling•. Inverse modelling•. Analysing a modelling result14. Practical exercise 3d –odelling magnetic anomalies for explorationtargeting15. Radiometric data•. Basic principles of radioactivity•. Measuring natural gamma radiation•. Processing and displaying radiometric data•. Geology and geological processes and their effects on gammaradiation16. Practical exercise 4 –nterpreting radiometric data for explorationtargeting17. Electrical and electromagnetic methods•. Basic principles of electricity•. Electrical properties of rocks•. Resistivity method•. Induced polarisation method•. Basic principles of electromagnetism•. Electromagnetic data acquisition and interpretation18. Practical exercise 5 –nterpreting electrical and electromagneticdata for exploration targeting19. Seismic reflection method•. Seismic waves•. Geological causes of variation in seismic properties•. Processing and interpretation of seismic data The course is designed for:•ndustry, government and student geologists seeking to understandhow to use geophysical datasets to explore for minerals•eophysicists seeking to improve the integration of geology in totheir interpretations Participants should have a basic understanding of the geology ofmineral deposits and mineral exploration practice. They should alsobe familiar with MS
GeophysicsMineral ExplorationExploring for Minerals Using Geophysics: A Mineral System-Based Approach
By Prof. Michael Dentith (The University of Western Australia, Australia)
Michael Dentithelectromagnetism gravity induced seismicity magnetics minerals polarisation radiometrics resistivityThe purpose of this course is to familiarise mineral exploration geoscientistswith the very latest developments in our understanding ofthe geophysical responses of mineral systems. The course revises themineral system concept and considers these ideas in a geophysicalcontext. New targets, in additional to traditional deposit-scale targetsare proposed, e.g. fluid/metal source zones, fluid conduits andpalaeo-reservoirs.The geophysical responses of key mineral system components areconsidered from first principles. Physical property contrasts expectedto be associated with different components are described and newmethods of analysing petrophysical data are demonstrated. The usein mineral exploration of deep penetrating ‘cademic’eophysicalmethods is also described. Methods covered include the magnetotelluricmethod, deep seismic reflection profiling and teleseismic andambient noise passive seismic methods.Finally exploring for mineral systems using geophysical methods isdemonstrated using examples from three important deposit styles:carbonate-hosted base metals, magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in mafic/ultramafic rocks and hydrothermal (orogenic) gold. On completion of the course participants will:•nderstand the mineral system concept and its implications for geophysicalexploration, especially when exploring for blind targets•now how to recognise responses from components of mineralsystem in their geophysical datasets•e aware of recent developments in the use of deep-penetratinggeophysical methods for mineral exploration•nderstand how to use analyse petrophysical data to predict geophysicalresponses of mineral system components•e familiar with the geophysical characteristics of common mineralsystem components, including the components of selectedmagmatic, sedimentary-basin-hosted and hydrothermal mineralsystems. 1. Introduction: mineral exploration in 2017•. current exploration practice/strategy,•. declining discovery rates, rising discovery costs•. implications of going ‘nder cover’•. government exploration incentive schemes/public domain data2. Mineral systems•. Description of the concept and implications for mineral exploration•. Mineral system classification schemes•. The importance of geographically widespread data and deeppenetrating geophysical methods•. New targets suggested by the mineral systems concept: source,reservoirs, pathways and the importance of associated alteration3. Petrophysics•. A new conceptual framework for petrophysical data: bulk-grain-texture•. Importance of proper sampling•. Importance of analysing the data in a geochemical/petrological/geological framework•. Workflow for petrophysical data in a mineral systems context:analysis in context of lithology, stratigraphy, metamorphism/alteration,location4. Large scale and deep penetrating geophysical methods•. Key mineral systems targets (major faults, craton margins, mantlemetasomatism, fluid reservoirs, major magma chambers) andtheir geophysical expression•. Potential field data (responses from mineral system components)•. Magnetotelluric data (responses from mineral system components)•. Active source seismic methods - deep reflection, refraction data(responses from mineral system components)•. Passive seismic methods - teleseismic, ambient noise methods(responses from mineral system components)5. Geophysics of selected mineral systems•. Sedimentary basin-hosted system: Carbonate-hosted base metals(Mississippi Valley-type, Irish style)•. Magmatic system: Ni-Cu in mafic/ultramafic intrusions•. Hydrothermal system: orogenic gold The course is designed for:•ndustry, government and student geoscientists who are usingthe mineral system concept to guide exploration and wish to understandhow geophysical methods can be integrated in to theirexploration strategy•eoscientists with a basic understanding of geophysical data setsseeking to be innovative in their use of geophysical explorationmethods Participants should have a basic understanding of the geology ofmineral deposits and mineral exploration
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationMicroseismic Monitoring for the Energy Industry
By Dr Leo Eisner (Seismik, Czech Republic)
Leo Eisneranisotropy earthquake geophones induced seismicity isotropy p-wave polarisation s-wave geothermal ccsThis newly revised programme explaines the principles of microseismicmonitoring ranging from single monitoring borehole to surface andnear surface networks. The applications cover from conventional tounconventional production, through geothermal energy extractionto CO2 sequestration. We will focus on understanding the measurementsmade in passive seismic, their use and their uncertainties.The course will also discuss the latest developments in microseismicityfrom DAS monitoring systems, source mechanisms, tomography andanisotropy to reservoir simulations. Finally, we will discuss social andscientific aspects of (induced) seismicity related to oil and gas reservoir,hydraulic fracturing and unconventional production. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•elect the right type of microseismic monitoring array to meet thegoals that need to be monitored;•esign an optimal array for passive seismic (surface or downhole)monitoring, estimate in it uncertainties of locations for microseismicevents;•rient downhole geophones from a perforation or calibrationshot, estimate approximate distance and depth of a recordedmicroseismic event;•alibrate velocity model;•dentify shear wave splitting in downhole microseismic datasets;•itigate hazards associated with induced seismicity by fluid injection;•etermine epicenter from the surface monitoring array and estimatesource mechanisms of visible microseismic events;•etermine if the seismicity in the vicinity of an oilfield is related toinjection or extraction of fluids. 1. Introduction: Definitions, a brief review of microseismicity outsideof oil industry: water reservoirs, mining, geothermal, CO2 sequestration.Microseismicity and induced seismicity by reservoir production.Historical review of microseismicity in energy industry with focus onhydraulic fracturing (Basel, Soultz, M-site, Cotton Valley, Barnett,etc). Principles of the hydraulic fracturing and geomechanics. Goal ofmicroseismic monitoring and options to meet them.2. Earthquake seismology: number of unknowns, differences betweenactive and passive seismic. Receivers - how to select optimaltype of sensors to meet our goals. Absolute location, relative location.P- and S-wave polarizations. Frequency content of microseismicdata. Finite source. Earthquake magnitudes.3. Downhole monitoring: single well monitoring technique - S-Pwave time + P-wave polarization technique location. Horizontalmonitoring borehole. Picking strategies for downhole monotoring.Optimal design of downhole monitoring array. Orientation of downholegeophones. Velocity model building and calibration. Inclined/dual and multi well monitoring.4. Surface monitoring: P-wave location from surface: depth vs. origintime. Detection uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio. Frequencycontent, attenuation and detection. Design of surface monitoringarray. Calibration and velocity model building. Relative locations:using S-waves recorded at the surface monitoring array. Case studycomparing the downhole and surface locations. Why surface microseismicmonitoring works, near surface attenuation.5. Source mechanisms: concept of source mechanism, definition ofdip, strike and rake for shear source. Description of shear, tensile,volumetric, CLVD components of source mechanism. Inversion forsource mechanisms from single monitoring borehole, multiplemonitoring boreholes surface P-wave only data. Radiation patternof source mechanisms frequently seen in microseismic monitoring.Source mechanisms and stress orientation.6. Advanced source parametrization: Magnitude: definition and determination,seismic energy, b-values and magnitude of completness,physical liminations of b-values, stress drop, source dimensions.7. Anisotropy: Introduction to anisotropy. Effect of anisotropic mediaon S-waves: shear wave splitting. Shear wave splitting observedin microseismic data. Inversion of anisotropic media from P- andS-waves using microseismic events, time lapse changes. Anisotropyand surface monitoring of microseismic events.8. Reservoir simulations: Current use of microseismicity in oil industryand implementation of microseismicity into modeling. Diffusionmodel for pressure triggering of microseismic events. Non-lineardiffussion and mass balance. Discrete Fracture Networks constrainedby microseismicity. Reservoir simulations and history matching.9. Seismicity in the vicinity of energy exploration. History of feltseismicity related to oil and gas industry. Differentiation of naturaland induced seismicity. Seismic moment and total injected volume.Blackpool case study as an example of induced seismicity. Oklahomaand DFW seismicity - natural seismicity? Hazard assesment and mitigation.Social aspects related to development of shale gas.10. Review of recent reserch effort and case studies in microseismicity.Models of relationship between microseismicity and hydraulicfracturing. Most important things to remember about microseismicity. The course is designed for users and practitioners in microseismicmonitoring. No requirements prior to the course are needed, although knowledgeof seismology and hydraulic fracturing would be
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationSeismic Fracture Characterization: Concepts and Practical Applications
By Dr Enru Liu (ExxonMobil, United States)
Enru Liu3d anisotropy carbonates mechanics multicomponent p-wave rock physics seismic attributes unconventionalThe ability to identify fracture clusters and corridors and their prevalentdirections within many carbonates and unconventional resources(shale gas, tight gas and tight oil reservoirs) can have a significantimpact on field development planning as well as on the placement ofindividual wells. The characterization of natural fractures is difficultand cannot be achieved by any single discipline or single measurement.Geophysics can identify spatial distributions of fractures andfracture corridors between wells and seismically-derived fracture informationto complement (not compete with) other measurements,such as outcrops, core, FMI, cross-dipole and other fracture information.This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts ofseismic fracture characterization by introducing seismic anisotropy,equivalent-medium representation theories of fractured rock andmethodologies for extracting fracture parameters from seismic data.With a focus on practical applications, three case studies are presentedto demonstrate the applicability, workflow and limitations ofthis technology: a physical laboratory 3D experiment where fracturedistributions are known, a Middle East fractured carbonate reservoirand a fractured tight gas reservoir. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand key geological aspects of fractures and their roles inhydrocarbon exploration and production;•nderstand the fundamental concept of seismic anisotropy andthe equivalent medium representation of fractured rock;•nderstand the principal methodologies of seismic fracture characterizationusing shear-wave splitting and azimuthal variation ofseismic attributes;•nderstand the basic data requirement, assumptions, limitationsand applicability of seismic fracture prediction technology;•pply practical workflow introduced in this course to real seismicdata;•nterpret and integrate seismically-derived fractures with othermeasurements. •ntroduction: key geological elements•undamental seismic anisotropy•quivalent medium representation of fractured rock•racture characterization using P-wave data•hear-waves and applications of multicomponent seismology•ase study 1: 3D Physical laboratory data•ase study 2: An example from offshore Middle East carbonatereservoir•ase study 3: An example from tight gas reservoir•ummary and road ahead The integrated nature of this subject means that the book and theassociated course are purposely designed for individuals from all subsurfacedisciplines including geophysics, geomechanics, rock physics,petrophysics, geology, reservoir modeling and reservoir engineering. None. Students as well as experienced geoscientists and engineersshould benefit from this
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationSeismic Surveillance for Reservoir Delivery
By Olav Inge Barkved (Petoro, Norway)
Olav Inge Barkved4d integration interpretation marine monitoring seismicity shelf time-lapseTime-lapse seismic surveys or 4D seismic provide snapshots of aproducing hydrocarbon reservoir and its surroundings. The benefitof the technology in monitoring fluid and pressure changes and topoint out bypassed oil or un-drained compartments has been welldocumented over the last 10–5 years. Still the technology is undergoingrapid development. One of the recent focuses has beenthe use of permanent seismic installation allowing for cost- effectivefrequent surveying, and an added benefit of providing additionalrecordings that would not be available without the permanent array.In addition, recent case studies have helped raise the awareness ofhow seismic monitoring techniques can be used to understand possibleproduction induced effects outside the reservoir, often linked togeo-mechanical changes.This course will provide some context on what is driving the dynamicchanges linked to producing a hydrocarbon reservoir and what weshould expect to observe using seismic technologies in a varied geologicalsetting. It will address key issues that impact the feasibilityof time-lapse seismic and evaluate established methods. However,the focus will be on ‘ew’echnologies, use of a permanent array,frequent seismic surveying and integration of the data.Examples from the Valhall field will be used extensively to illustratethe potential of seismic data and to articulate issues related to interpretationand integration. This will include data examples frommarine towed 4D, frequent surveying using permanently installedsensors, in-well recordings and analysis of passive data, includingmicro seismicity. Use of seismic surveillance information to supportreservoir management, new well delivery and base management willbe a central part of the presentation. In the course we will aim at addressing:•hat type of fields and mechanism are candidates for seismicsurveillance?•n overview over available technologies for seismic surveillance ofproducing reservoirs, with a primary focus on time lapse methodsand permanent systems•D seismic and linkage to geo-mechanics•pplication and Integration across the disciplines; challenges andbenefits•ase stories•ow we value the seismic surveillance•ow recent example of emerging technologies can tell us whatthe future will bring This course is of interest to managers, geoscientists and reservoir andpetroleum engineers who aim for integrating time-lapse seismic datainto the next level of technical and business decisions and anyoneelse who sees the benefit of tracking changes in the subsurface in awider sense. The intention is to inspire, educate and possibly entertainindividuals on how to embark on a seismic surveillance projectand stimulate new ideas for those with some experience in the topic.The course will be biased towards marine seismic applications butthis should not prohibit possible usage on land. Participants should have a basic appreciation of geosciences andpetroleum technical principles linked to producing
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationSeismic Reservoir Characterization: An Earth Modeling Perspective
By Dr Philippe Doyen (Independent Consultant, United Kingdom)
Philippe Doyen
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(0000919–20 Jul 2022)
carbonates geostatistics integration interpolation interpretation inversion lithology rock physics sedimentThree-dimensional numerical earth models play an increasinglyimportant role in the petroleum industry to improve reservoir managementand optimize hydrocarbon recovery. A key challenge forreservoir geoscientists is the quantitative integration of 3D and 4Dseismic data into static and dynamic earth modeling workflows.Using a combination of theory and illustrations from real field studies,this two-day course reviews best practices and challenges forconstraining earth models with seismic information and quantifyingsubsurface uncertainty. The course objectives of the course are to:•rovide a practical introduction to techniques and workflowscombining geostatistics and rock physics for the construction ofseismic-constrained earth models;•xplain how to integrate quantitatively seismic and well data inearth modelling workflows and evaluate the associated geo-modeluncertainty;•escribe the assumptions and technical limitations of currentseismic-based geo-modeling techniques, thus helping reduce theblack-box application of software tools;•ighlight the technical challenges and the road ahead for quantitativeseismic interpretation. The two-days course is divided into 7 modules, which provide anoverview of basic concepts and their application to a number of casestudy examples involving both clastic, carbonate and unconventionalreservoirs.•odule 1 —ntroduction to geostatistics and earth modellingfrom seismic data.•odule 2 —eostatistical interpolation techniques for seismic-guided 3-D earth models.•odule 3 —tochastic simulation with seismic constraints.•odule 4 —eismic lithology and fluid prediction using statisticaltechniques.•odule 5 —tochastic inversion.•odule 6 —tatistical rock physics.•odule 7 —imulator-to-Seismic workflow using 4-D earth models. The course is aimed at geoscientists and engineers who are involvedin the construction of earth models and who wish to learn aboutpractical techniques for seismic data integration, combined use ofseismic rock physics and geostatistics, uncertainty modeling andquantitative 4D interpretation. The course comes at a time whenseismic-based earth modeling has become a key activity for integratedasset teams in the E&P industry. It should therefore be of interestto a broad audience, including technical specialists and managers,who are actively involved or supervise seismic-to-simulator activities.Basic knowledge of seismic inversion techniques and geostatistics isdesirable. Basic knowledge of seismic inversion techniques ad geostatistics isdesirablein-house-truebook-trueregistration-open-true
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationGeostatistical Reservoir Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification
By Dr Dario Grana (University of Wyoming, United States)
Dario Granaelasticity geostatistics integration inversion modeling monitoring noise rock physics time-lapseReservoir modeling provides a set of techniques to create three-dimensionalnumerical earth models in terms of elastic, petrophysicaland dynamic properties of reservoir rocks. Mathematical/physicalmodels of the reservoir are generally uncertain due to the lack ofinformation, noise in data measurements, approximations and assumptions.The course focuses on geostatistical methods for reservoirmodeling and uncertainty quantification techniques for reservoirpredictions.It is divided into four main parts: Geostatistical methods for interpolationand simulation; Rock physics modeling; Geophysical inverseproblems; Uncertainty quantification.Uncertainty propagation from measured data, through physical modelsto model predictions will be studied with a focus on seismic datainversion, static reservoir characterization, structural modeling, dynamicfluid simulation, and time-lapse monitoring. Real case studieswill be presented for each topic to illustrate the proposed workflows. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•enerate multiple reservoir models;•nderstand physical relations between reservoir and geophysicalparameters;•valuate the uncertainty of model predictions. The one-day short course will have the following schedule:Introduction•art 1: Review of statistical analysis and probability•art 2: Geostatistics and spatial uncertainty•art 3: Rock physics•art 4: Geostatistics and spatial uncertainty•art 5: Seismic inversion•art 6: Uncertainty quantification•art 7: Visualizing uncertaintyCase studies will be presented for each section. The course is designed for employees of oil companies in geophysicsand reservoir modeling. Participants should have knowledge of basic reservoir modeling conceptsand of common geophysical
GeophysicsReservoir CharacterizationOperational Geomechanics: Characterization of Rock Stress, Rock Fractures and Rock Stability for Energy, Environmental, and Engineering Industrial Operations in the Lithosphere
By Dr Mohammed S. Ameen (Geomechanics and Rock Fractures Expert, United Kingdom, retired from Saudi Aramco)
Mohammed S. Ameengeomechanical stress isotropy anisotropy rock fractures rock stability lithosphere geothermal water reservoirs nuclear waste geohazards hydrofracture stymulation in-situ stress hydraulic fracturing borehole scaleThis EAGE Education Tour (EET) course starts by introducingdefinitions of fundamental concepts such as force, stress and strain;which are the building blocks of natural and operationally inducedgeomechanical failure, both at deep and shallow zones of the Earthlithosphere. In that context natural rock and lithospheric stresshomogeneity vs heterogeneity, and isotropy vs anisotropy are alsodiscussed. The course goes on to address and illustrate naturallyoccurring rock fractures. Natural fractures’tatistical, geometric, andkinematic categories, and structural habitats are also discussed.Subsequently, the course presents the impact of natural fractures onfluid transmissivity /permeability and fluid storativity/effective porosityof rock masses which are crucial in many aspects such as hydrocarbonassets (both conventional and unconventional reservoirs),geothermal, and water reservoirs and nuclear waste repositories, capseal and fault seal integrity and seismic hazards.The high-resolution detection, measurement, and diagnosis offractures and stress indicators on drill bore scale (e.g. oil and gaswells, geothermal wells, site investigation boring in environmental,and geotechnical engineering projects like nuclear waste repositories,dam sites etc) are a starting point to any effective geomechanicalassessment of rocks. These are presented focusing particularly(amongst other tools) on borehole image logs like resistivity andultrasonic images and rock samples such as full diameter drill core,side wall plugs, and cuttings. Quality control on logs- and core-baseddata is an essential step in assuring reliability of their interpretationand subsequent decision-making. Therefore, the course covers theuncertainties associated with such tools (e.g. natural versus inducedfractures; borehole deformation phenomena and their stress/strengthimplications etc).Current day Earth stresses are the driving engine for any ongoingnatural and artificially induced rock deformation and failure. Operationalgeomechanics’orkflows used for the assessment of in situstress magnitude and the in-situ stress orientation are introduced anddiscussed. Uncertainty sources in such workflows are also considered.The application areas of operational geomechanics with a particularattention to borehole instability and other engineering infrastructureintegrity risks are then illustrated.The course will also discuss the concept of rock-based mechanicalanisotropy and heterogeneity and how they affect our operationalpractices. In that context it will discuss the impact on areas such as:hydrofracture stimulation; rock mass stability in deep and shallowenvironments including tunnels and dams, deep oil and gas boreholesand the seismic stability of existing faults in response to human madeactivities such as hydraulic fracturing and other operational activities. The course will cover the principles, and tools relevant to operationalgeomechanics with specific attention to borehole-scale characterization.The following aspects are covered:1. Introduction to force, stress and strain;2. Natural rock fractures: their causes, statistical, geometric, andkinematic categories;3. Borehole-scale geomechanical tools:3.1 Borehole images3.2 Borehole rock samples (whole core, plugs, cuttings)3.3 Sonic logs and supplementary open hole logs;4. Rock mechanical characterization based on rock samples and logs;5. In-Situ Stress Characterization based on rock samples, logs, andspecial field tests:5.1 Assessment of in situ stress magnitude5.2 Assessment of in situ stress orientation;6. Assessment of rock mechanical and in-situ stress anisotropy;7. Application areas of operational geomechanics. The course is designed for geologists, geophysicists, and engineersworking on and managers concerned with natural fractures andin-situ stresses characterization and instability risks of rock masses.The course is relevant to:1. Oil and gas conventional and unconventional exploration,development and production;2. Reservoir stimulation (e.g. hydrofracturing);3. Assessment of geomechanical impact on fluid flow or sealingcapacity of rocks (e.g. sealing faults; cap rock integrity etc);4. Geothermal reservoirs;5. Nuclear waste repository site investigation;6. Geotechnical/engineering projects like tunnels, dams foundation,highways etc. Participants should have a basic knowledge of geology and aperception of the definition of rock porosity, permeability, androck mass texture and structure. No software will be utilized in
Near SurfaceEnvironmental GeophysicsNear-Surface Geoscience
By Dr Andreas Laake (Schlumberger, United States)
Andreas Laakeacoustic drilling geomorphology hazards integration interpretation noise remote sensing shallowThis course covers the geological and geophysical concepts governingthe near-surface. Methods for investigating and characterizingthe near-surface such as remote sensing and surface geophysicalmethods are presented. The different measurements are archivedand integrated in a geographical information system (GIS). The finalintegration reveals geological information about the near-surfaceand provides geophysical information for corrections in seismic dataprocessing. The course introduces geomorphology as a concept to understandthe geological and geophysical characteristics of the near-surface,enabling the students to extract structural and lithological information.This information can be used on one hand for the prediction ofshallow drilling hazards and outlining deeper structures and on theother hand for the correction of near-surface effects in seismic dataprocessing. 1. Geomorphology and the near-surface2. Methods for investigation3. Near-surface characterization4. Impact of geomorphology on geophysical data5. Representation and integration in GIS6. Interpretation of near-surface geoscientific data Geophysicists and geologists who are working in exploration and arecurious to understand the impact of the near-surface on subsurfacegeophysical data and who wish to understand what the surface geomorphologycan tell them about subsurface structures. Participants should have a basic knowledge of geophysics and
Near SurfaceNon-Seismic MethodsSubsurface Utility Engineering Detection & Mapping of Subsurface Utilities
By Dr Sanjay Rana (AF Academy - Aqua Foundation, India)
Sanjay Ranasubsurface utility engineering sue induction locators gpr gps hazards mapping wave propagation signal processingHaving accurate knowledge of subsurface/ underground/ buriedutilities (pipes/ cables/ drains etc.) is critical for any infrastructureproject. The successful detection and mapping of buried utilitiesinvolves the combination of several techniques, the results of whichare synthesized down to a single interpreted plot. The techniquesand methodologies used will primarily depend upon the requiredoutcome for the survey, the site conditions and the type of pipesor cables being targeted. Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) is anupcoming field dealing with procedure and standards for detectionand mapping of underground utilities. The course comprehensivelycovers all the aspects related to conducting a successful undergroundutility detection and mapping project. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•earn how to detect and map buried pipes and cables (metallic &non-metallic) without digging•earn Ground Penetrating Radar•earn Induction Locators (cable & pipe locators/ radio locators)•nderstand quality levels of SUE (Subsurface Utility Engineering)•dvanced data processing of Ground Penetrating Radar data•void accidents/ damage to underground utilities during construction •ntroduction to Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE)•tility Quality Level Attributes•teps and procedures for QL-D data collection•urvey procedures for collecting QL-C data (including use of totalstation, DGPS, etc.)•ield Procedure and Approaches for GPR Surveys•ata Processing of GPR data•ata interpretation of GPR data•ield Procedure and Approaches for EPL Surveys•UE map preparation guidelines, including plan, L section etc. This course will help professionals, engineers and managers fromentire spectrum of construction, infrastructure and municipal sector. Nonein-house-truenew-true
Near SurfaceNon-Seismic MethodsA Gentle Introduction to Electromagnetics (EM) in Geophysics
By Dr Jaap C. Mondt (Breakaway, Netherlands)
Jaap C. Mondtanisotropy electromagnetism electromagnetism gpr resistivityAlthough in the search for hydrocarbons seismic plays the dominantrole, complementary data can be very useful. A clear example is thatseismic can clearly determine reservoir geometries based on acousticimpedance changes but is less sensitive to the pore-fluids. Electromagneticmeasurements, such as Controlled Source EM (CSEM)measures resistivity directly and hence can discriminate betweenbrine and hydrocarbon fill.You might wonder about the poorer resolution of EM compared withseismic. Indeed, that is the case, but by combining the two independentsources of information, then seismic will give the structure(container) which then can be used as a constraint for the inversionof EM. Another application is in the realm of determining the shapeof allochthone salt bodies below which hydrocarbons can be present.Numerous applications can be mentioned in relation to shallow seismic.An obvious one is the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)for investigating archaeological sites or determining the depth toupwelling deep salt-water due to severe pumping of fresh water forirrigation.This course is unique in its hands-on exercises and its use of an open-source software Apps developed at UBC. Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:1. Interpret heuristically the basic equations governing EM phenomena;2. Explain that EM characteristics/properties and uses depend on thefrequency of the electromagnetic “ave”3. Define the realms of EM diffusion and EM wave propagation;4. Understand how EM can be used in the search for hydrocarbons,investigating the shallow subsurface for the extend of pollution orsalt water penetration;5. Relate Induced Polarization to the presence of a working hydrocarbonsystem in the deeper subsurface. All those who are interested in understanding the use of Electromagnetic(EM) methods in Geophysical Applications. These are thegeoscientists working in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitationas well as those applying shallow surface geophysics for detectingore bodies, determining the extend of shallow pollution, foundationengineering, etc. Prerequisite is an intermediate level of understanding of physics andgeophysics in the context of exploration and production of hydrocarbonsand mitigation of pollution, including the issue of salt
Near SurfaceNon-Seismic MethodsNon-Seismic Data Acquisition and Processing: Gravity & Magnetics
By Dr Jaap C. Mondt (Breakaway, Netherlands)
Jaap C. Mondtanisotropy electromagnetism electromagnetism gpr resistivityNon-Seismic methods such as gravity and magnetics provide valuablecomplementary information about the subsurface that is not providedby Seismic methods. In this course you will learn about thesetechniques and their use in the search for hydrocarbons, ores, salt-fresh water boundaries, etc. Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to understandthe use of gravity and magnetics data, how they are acquired,the benefits of employing them in geophysical acquisition projectsand how to decide how much money to spend on a Non-SeismicProject. Part 1: Gravity•eophysical Methods•ravity Anomaly•epth Estimation•ravity Response•nversion of Gravity Data•ravity ResolutionPart 2: Magnetics•eo-Mag Signatures•agnetic Modelling•agnetic Anomaly•nversion of Magnetic Data•ravity and Magnetic Response•eomodel Inversion The course assumes a reasonable understanding of Physics.Recommended readingPhilip Kearey, Michael Brooks, Ian Hill, An Introduction to GeophysicalExploration, John Wiley & Sons, April 2013.J. D. Fairhead, Advances in Gravity and Magnetic processing andInterpretation, EAGE ISBN
Near SurfaceNon-Seismic MethodsGravity and Magnetic Methods for Oil & Gas and Mineral Exploration and Production
By Dr Yaoguo Li (Colorado School of Mines, United States)
Yaoguo Li3d density groundwater interpretation inversion magnetic survey magnetics time-lapse waterGravity and magnetic data are among the oldest geophysical data acquiredfor the purpose of resource exploration and exploitation. Theycurrently also have the widest areal coverage on the Earth, span agreat range of scales and play important roles in mineral, energy andgroundwater arenas. The interpretation methods have evolved fromdata map-based visual inspection, various map enhancements anddepth estimation, to quantitative interpretations based on inversionsand integrated modeling. In particular, 3D inversion techniques haveemerged as a major component in this evolution. The availability of3D inversion techniques has advanced potential-field interpretationfrom ‘nomaly bump hunting’o 3D imaging of the subsurface byreconstructing the distribution of density or magnetic properties invarious geological units and, thereby, have shifted interpretationsfrom the data domain to the model domain. Similarly, inversion techniquesare also poised to make major contributions to integratedmodeling and interpretation, as well as to differentiating and characterizinggeology, geological processes and reservoir dynamics. Thiscourse will focus on the methodology, numerical computation, solutionstrategy and applications of 3D physical property inversions ofgravity and magnetic data sets. The course is designed to have twotracks in order to meet the different needs of the EAGE communityin mineral exploration and in oil & gas exploration and production.We achieve this by dividing the course into two parts: methodologiescommon in potential-field methods in Part I and discussion of toolsand applications specific to mineral exploration or oil & gas reservoirmonitoring in Part II. Part I: Common concepts and methodologies1. Fundamentals of potential-field data observed in gravity, gravitygradiometry, and magnetic surveys.2. Data processing methods based on equivalent source techniqueand inverse formulation.3. 3D gravity and magnetic inversions and the practical strategies fortheir efficient solution and applications to large-scale problems.4. Binary inversion potential-field data in 3D.5. Gravity gradiometry.(option) Part II: Mineral exploration track1. Inversion and interpretation of magnetic data affected by remanentmagnetization.2. Case histories from mineral exploration.(option) Part II: Oil & gas track1. Time-lapse monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs.2. Inversion of time-lapse gravity data for reservoir properties. Participants are expected to have a basic background in appliedgeophysics and some knowledge of potential-field methods. Weanticipate the geoscientists in the following areas will benefit fromthe course:•otential-field methods•ineral exploration•ntegrate interpretation•eservoir monitoring•roundwater hydrologyin-house-truebook-true
Near SurfaceNon-Seismic MethodsSatellite InSAR Data: Reservoir Monitoring from Space
By Dr Alessandro Ferretti (TRE ALTAMIRA, Italy)
Alessandro Ferrettideformation displacement gps interferometry remote sensing sensors sequestration time-lapse environmentSatellite radar data for surface deformation monitoring are gainingincreasing attention and not only within the oil and gas community.Co-seismic deformation maps are routinely generated using satelliteimages acquired before and after an earthquake and radar measurementsare now becoming mandatory to be compliant with newenvironmental regulations. Radar data provide a powerful tool forremotely measuring extremely small surface displacements over largeareas and long periods of time, without requiring the installation ofin-situ equipment. However, apart from remote sensing and radarspecialists, only a relatively small number of geoscientists and engineersunderstand how a radar sensor orbiting the Earth can actuallymeasure ground displacements of a fraction of a centimetre. Thiscourse provides a step-by-step introduction to satellite radar sensors,SAR imagery, SAR interferometry and advanced InSAR techniques.Rather than a tutorial for remote sensing specialists, the course startsfrom very basic concepts and explains in plain language the mostimportant ideas related to SAR data processing and why geoscientistsand engineers should take a vested interest in this new informationsource. Instead of providing a thorough analysis of InSAR algorithms,the main aim of the course is to diffuse the news about the potentialimpact of InSAR results on many real-life applications, highlightingwhere and when they can provide effective solutions. Participants willlearn that InSAR is not only an information source for research anddevelopment activities, but also a reliable tool that can be appliedsuccessfully to many different applications, some of them related tothe so-called “nergy transition”nd the need to run “nvironmentalfriendly”nergy projects. Special attention is paid to oil and gasapplications where surface deformation data can provide valuableconstraints on reservoir dynamics, enabling time-lapse monitoring ofvolumetric strains at depth. Volume changes in the reservoir inducedby fluid extraction and injection can induce both subsidence anduplift. Stress changes may then trigger the reactivation of faults andthreaten well integrity. Depending on the depth of the reservoir andthe characteristics of the cap rock, deformation may also be detectableat the surface. After demonstrating case studies focusing onsecondary and tertiary oil recovery, Carbon Capture and Sequestration(CCS) and Underground Gas Storage (UGS), the course describesthe available historical archives of SAR images, allowing, even if notat full worldwide coverage, the estimation of surface deformationphenomena since 1992. The course concludes with a brief discussionof the new satellite sensors to be launched in the next few years andthe new trends in data integration and visualization. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand the key interest of InSAR for geoscientists and engineers;•nderstand the basic concepts behind Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) sensors;•ppreciate the main differences between SAR and optical images;•nderstand the basic data requirements, assumptions, limitationsand applicability of SAR interferometry (InSAR);•iscover advantages and limitations of advanced InSAR techniquesfor estimating sub-centimetre surface deformation phenomenafrom space;•ealize why InSAR data are becoming a standard tool for surfacedeformation monitoring;•ompare InSAR data with in situ measurements, such as: GPS andtiltmeters;•nderstand how surface deformation can be related to geophysicalparameters at depth;•ee how InSAR data are an effective tool for monitoring subsidencephenomena;•nderstand the importance of surface deformation monitoring inCabon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and Underground GasStorage (UGS) projects;•nderstand why InSAR data can be used as a cost-effective tool forreservoir management, as well as a risk mitigation tool;•tart thinking about future applications of satellite radar data,possibly in synergy with other in-situ observations. 1. Introduction: why are satellite radar data relevant?2. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors: acquisition geometry andimage formation.3. Measuring range variations: the magic of SAR interferometry(InSAR).4. A tool for digital elevation model reconstruction and surfacedeformation analysis.5. Advanced InSAR techniques: from qualitative to quantitative data.6. From surface deformation to volume and pressure changes atdepth.7. Overview of possible applications: subsidence monitoring, fault characterization,calibration of geological models, reservoir monitoring.8. Time-lapse data for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS),Underground Gas Storage (UGS), secondary and tertiary (EOR) oilrecovery projects.9. Available data sources and historical archives of SAR data. A quickoverview of other InSAR applications.10. Summary and future trends. The course is designed for anyone who would like to understandhow satellite sensors can measure surface displacements to a fractionof a centimetre from space. It is not a course for radar specialists.Reservoir engineers, geophysicists, geodesists, geologists should allbe interested in this new tool for surface deformation monitoringthat is becoming more and more a standard. Radar data are stilllargely unknown but their impact on oil & gas and civil protectionapplications can be huge. Rather than a strong background in remote sensing, geophysics andcalculus, curiosity is probably the most important prerequisite. Thecourse can be understood by geoscientists and engineers with amoderate mathematical
Near SurfaceSeismic MethodsThe Use of Surface Waves for Near Surface Velocity Model Building
By Dr Laura Valentina Socco (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
Laura Valentina Socco2d 3d algorithm dispersion inversion passive sampling shear wave spectral analysis wave propagationThe use of surface wave analysis for near-surface characterizationhas dramatically increased in the last decade thanks to the possibilityoffered by this technique for shear wave velocity estimation. Newtools and approaches have been developed for surface wave dataacquisition and analysis to make the method robust and suitable tocomplex systems. The course will supply an overview of the methodstarting from surface wave propagation and dealing with acquisition,processing and inversion of surface wave data. Advantages andweaknesses of different approaches as well as requirements for dataacquisition and analysis will be discussed. Recent developments willbe presented with example of results and applications to differentnear-surface problems. The course will provide the participants with a wide overview ofthe main steps of the surface wave method: acquisition, processingand inversion. Different approaches with their potentialities andlimitations will be discussed through many practical examples to enablethe participants to acquire knowledge about the requirementsand design of data acquisition, processing methods and inversionalgorithms for different applications from small-scale engineeringproblems towards large-scale exploration. •urface wave propagation in homogeneous and layered media;•eometrical dispersion, modal curves and their properties;•he use of surface wave for near surface characterisation: themethod outline;•ata acquisition: on purpose acquired active data, other activedata, passive data;•rocessing: from raw data to dispersion curves;•nversion: stochastic methods, linearized methods (1D, pseudo-2d/3D), higher modes•he final results: resolution and uncertainties•he requirements for acquisition, processing and inversion. Near-surface geophysicists and exploration geophysicists interestedin near-surface velocity models. Participants should have basic knowledge of sampling principles,spectral analysis and inversion of seismic
Reservoir CharacterizationRock PhysicsRock Physics for Quantitative Seismic Reservoir Characterization
By Prof. Tapan Mukerji (Stanford University, United States)
Tapan Mukerjielasticity integration interpretation lithology modeling offshore oil and gas porosity reservoir characterization rock physics sandstone saturation shale uncertainty workflowsThe purpose of the course is to give an overview of rock physicsobservations and models relating reservoir properties such as saturation,lithology, clay content, and pore pressure and their seismic signatures.Understanding this relation can help to improve quantitativeseismic interpretation. The course covers fundamentals of Rock Physicsranging from basic laboratory and theoretical results to practical“ecipes”hat can be immediately applied in the field. Applicationof quantitative tools for understanding and predicting the effects oflithology, pore fluid types and saturation, saturation scales, stress,pore pressure and temperature, and fractures on seismic velocity.Use of rock physics models requires understanding the assumptionsand pitfalls of each model and the uncertainties associated withthe interpretations using these models. Analysis of case studies andstrategies for quantitative seismic interpretation using statistical rockphysics work flows, and suggestions for more effectively employingseismic-to-rock properties transforms in Bayesian machine learningfor reservoir characterization and monitoring, with emphasis on seismicinterpretation and uncertainty quantification for lithology andsubsurface fluid detection. On completion of the course, participants will be able to:•se rock physics models with a better understanding of assumptionsand pitfalls;•ombine statistical rock physics in quantitative seismic interpretationworkflows;•elect appropriate rock physics models for reservoir characterization;•se rock physics models to build appropriate training sets forBayesian machine learning applications in quantitative seismicinterpretation. •ntroduction to Rock Physics, motivation, introductory examples•arameters that influence seismic velocities - conceptual overview•ffects of fluids, stress, pore pressure, temperature, porosity, fractures•ounding methods for robust modeling of seismic velocities•ffective media models for elastic properties of rocks•assmann Fluid substitution –ses, abuses, and pitfalls•erivation, recipe and examples, useful approximations•artial saturation and the relation of velocities to reservoir processes•he importance of saturation scales and their effect on seismicvelocity•haly sands and their seismic signatures•ranular media models, unconsolidated sand model, cementedsand model•elocity dispersion and attenuation; Velocity Upscaling•ock Physics of AVO interpretation and Vp/Vs relations•uantitative seismic interpretation and rock physics templates•tatistical rock physics, Bayesian machine learning and uncertaintyquantification•ock physics modeling to augment deep learning training data•xample case studies using AVO and seismic impedance for quantitativereservoir characterization The course is recommended for all geophysicists, reservoir geologists,seismic interpreters, and engineers concerned with reservoir characterization,reservoir delineation, hydrocarbon detection, reservoirdevelopment and recovery monitoring. No specific prerequisites
Reservoir CharacterizationRock Physics3D Printing Geological Models For Education, Research, and Technical Communication – 3D Printing as an Emerging Technology in Geosciences
By Prof. Dr Franciszek Hasiuk (Iowa State University, United States) and Dr Sergey Ishutov (University of Alberta, Canada)
Franciszek Hasiuk, Sergey Ishutovcarbonates fractures modeling permeability porosity reservoir characterization rock physics sandstone tomography3D printing is an emerging technology in the geosciences that providesa fast, cost-effective way to transform digital designs into tangiblemodels. These tangible models enable a physical representationof 3D geometries and enhance communication among researchers,students, technical management, and non-experts. Whereas digitalmodels can be viewed only on a screen, a 3D printed model can beexperienced with other senses: it can be viewed at different lightangles and manipulated. For research purposes, 3D-printed modelscan be experimented with in the laboratory to validate numericalpredictions of rock properties.The course is designed in two days to cover broad topics related tovarious 3D printing applications. Day 1 provides an overview of different3D printing techniques that use both rock-like materials (e.g.,sand, gypsum, clay) and polymers (e.g., plastics, resins). While thesecost-effective methods are shaping the future of manufacturing,3D printing geological media requires profound understanding ofcapabilities and limitations of each technique and its material properties.Day 1 includes a module on how to digitally design and 3Dprint models for use in reservoir rock analysis, geomorphology, andpaleontology. For reservoir rock analysis, 3D printing of near-identicalrock proxies provides an approach to conduct repeatable laboratoryexperiments without destroying natural rock samples. The coursealso discusses case studies of 3D printing applications in the geoscienceand engineering research as well as in the petroleum industry.Participants will learn how to deploy 3D-printed models to improvetechnical communication to diverse audiences (e.g., engineers, managers,community stakeholders). The integration of digital data setswith 3D-printed surface and subsurface features will help participantto learn about communication for societal objectives. Discussion of3D printing as a teaching tool will help students and educators tounderstand the practical approaches of using 3D-printed models inexplaining complex concepts and 3D data. The course will provideinsights on future implementation of 3D printing techniques ingeosciences, including reduced costs of 3D printers, open-sourcesoftware, and free access to digital model repositories.Day 2 involves practical components of using 3D printing for characterizationof reservoir rocks and geomorphic features. 3D-printedporous and fracture models are used to investigate fundamentalresearch questions in the areas of single and multiphase fluid flowas well as reactive transport in reservoir sandstones and carbonaterocks. Participants will design 3D-printable models containing poreand fracture networks using CAD and computed tomography data.They will have an opportunity to manufacture their models with local3D printing shops. In addition, participants will be provided withpre-printed replicas equivalent to their digital models to investigatethe fidelity of 3D printing techniques and materials. Participants willlearn how 3D-printed models can be used in destructive and non-destructiveanalyses to study geomechanical and transport properties(e.g., porosity, pore sizes, grain sizes, fracture apertures, connectivityof pore and fracture networks). Participants will also gain experiencewith TouchTerrain app that allows to generate 3D-printable terrainmodels with no CAD or GIS software. On completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand capabilities and limitations of different 3D printingtechniques;•emonstrate how to digitally design 3D-printable models usingCAD software or computed tomography data;•rovide the assessment of digital models and their relative3D-printed replicas;•haracterize how 3D printing can increase the effectiveness ofcommunicating geoscience data;•pply 3D printing in current or future research and teaching. Day 1: Introduction to 3D printing and review of its current applications•ecture “verview of 3D printing technlogy”- Brief history of 3D printing- Common 3D printing techniques- Materials used and their physical and chemical properties- Current and future advances of 3D printing•ctivity “ethods of transforming digital models into 3D-printedobjects”- Which geoscience data are 3D-printable- Which 3D printer and material fit digital model parameters•ecture “pplications of 3D printing in the geoscience and engineeringresearch”- Use of 3D printing in petroleum industry- 3D printing as a tool in reservoir rock analysis- Scaling in geomorphology, geomechanics, and groundwaterstudies•ctivity “D printing as a communication tool for”- Technical management- Community stakeholders- Researchers presenting their technical studies to both experts andnon-experts•ctivity “D printing as a teaching tool for”- Students learning new 3D concepts and models- Researchers involved in data exchange•ive demonstration of 3D printing rock, fossil, and terrain modelsin the course of day 1Day 2: Application of 3D printing in modeling porous media andgeomorphic features•ractical exercise “igital design of 3D-printable models”- With CAD (idealized porous models)- From computed tomography data (reservoir rock samples)- Using TouchTerrain app (terrain models)•ctivity “ssessment of accuracy of 3D-printed models”- Success or failure of external and internal features- Post-processing efficiency and precision•ecture “alidation of flow properties in reservoir rock models”- Advantages of destructive tests- Limitations of non-destructive tests- Value of adding 3D printing into reservoir characterization workflow•D printing models in coordination with local 3D printing servicecompanies•ive demonstration of 3D printing reservoir rock models The course is designed in 2 days to accommodate a broad rangeof participant groups. Day 1 of the course covers overview of 3Dprinting techniques and methods and is intended for general audience.It is useful for students, geoscientists, engineers, who areinterested in current advances of 3D printing in research and teaching.It can also be beneficial for managers and stakeholders whowant to learn the use of 3D printing in technical communications.Day 2 covers research applications of 3D printing in porous mediaand geomorphology and involves practical section on creating3D-printable models of reservoir rocks and terrains. It is beneficialfor geologists, petrophysicists, stratigraphers, geophysicists, geomorphologists,reservoir and geomechanical engineers and geomodellersfrom both industry and academia who are interested in transformingdigital models into tangible objects that can be viewed, touched,manipulated, and tested in the lab as natural rocks. Participantswill receive hand-on experience on creating digital rock and terrainmodels, validating their accuracy and exploring the best methods to3D print them. In addition, day 2 of the course will involve reviewof current advances in research on 3D printing reservoir rock modelsthat involves investigation of petrophysical and geomechanicalproperties of 3D-printed rock analogues. Skills obtained during day1 will allow participants to be engaged in day 2 activities withoutprerequisites. If participants take only day 2, basic knowledge aboutmajor 3D printing techniques and materials as well as CAD modelingand computed tomography is required. Prior knowledge of CAD modeling and interpretation of computedtomography data would be useful, but is not
Reservoir CharacterizationRock PhysicsApplied Microfacies
By Prof. Dr Michael Poppelreiter (Shell, Kuwait)
Michael Poppelreiter
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(0003420–23 Sep 2022)
carbonates diagenesis mineralogy permeability stratigraphy thin section wellsHands-on microfacies characterization using industry data sets. Analysis:mineralogy, components, pore types, diagenesis. Participants areinstructed on how to capture observations such that patterns andrules might be detected. The course encourages participants to thinkof processes and products during thin section characterization.Industry data sets are used to illustrate the use of microfacies characterizationto help solve operational issues of carbonate fields.Production increase is demanded. Wells (fully cored) show contraryproduction behavior. The stratigraphy is ‘ayer cake’nd both wellsare perforated in the highest perm interval of a few meters thick.Thin sections are linked with petrophysical data, openhole logs andproduction data. Course participants are encouraged to use thinsection descriptions to develop a conceptual model for permeabilitybased on a depositional model architecture based on the investigationof available this sections. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•uality control thin sections.•etermine the mineralogy of a stained section.•haracterize fossiliferous and non-fossiliferous components suchas ooids or brachiopods.•lassify the carbonate texture (Dunham) and grain geometry. The course is designed for geologists, petrophysicists, stratigraphersas well as explorers in academic and industry positions. Participants should have knowledge of the principles of carbonategeology and a fundamental understanding of
Reservoir CharacterizationRock PhysicsExplorational Rock Physics and Seismic Reservoir Prediction
By Dr Per Avseth (Independent Consultant, Norway) and Prof. Dr Tor Arne Johansen (University of Bergen, Norway)
Per Avseth, Tor Arne Johansen4d attenuation carbonates interpretation inversion lithology remote sensingThe field of rock physics represents the link between qualitativegeologic parameters and quantitative geophysical measurements.Increasingly over the last decade, rock physics stands out as a keytechnology in petroleum geophysics, as it has become an integralpart of quantitative seismic interpretation. Ultimately, the applicationof rock physics tools can reduce exploration risk and improve reservoirforecasting in the petroleum industry.This course covers fundamentals of rock physics, ranging from basiclaboratory and theoretical results to practical recipes that can be immediatelyapplied in the field, presenting qualitative and quantitativetools for understanding and predicting the effects of lithology, porefluid types and saturation, stress and pore pressure, fractures andtemperature on seismic velocity and attenuation.The importance and benefit of linking rock physics to geologic processes,including depositional and compactional trends as well astectonic uplift and unloading, are key to this course, which demonstratesin detail how to build so-called rock physics templates thatcan be used to interpret both well log and seismic inversion data interms of geological trends and reservoir properties. It is important inexploration and appraisal to extrapolate away from existing wells,taking into account how the depositional environment changesas well as burial depth trends. In this way rock physics can betterconstrain the geophysical inversion and classification problem inunderexplored marginal fields, surrounding satellite areas, or in newfrontiers.In particular, we focus on how rock physics properties, fluid sensitivitiesand associated seismic signatures change as we go from soft sedimentsin the shallow subsurface to well consolidated rocks that haveundergone more severe mechanical and chemical compaction, andeven uplift and brittle deformation. Likewise, we show how seismicamplitudes can change drastically as we go from one depositionalenvironment to another, for instance in a channel-levee complex aswe go from central axis to the levee and overbank area.The course includes practical examples and case studies, as wellas suggested workflows, where rock physics models are combinedwith well log and prestack seismic data, sedimentologic information,inputs from basin modeling and statistical techniques to predict reservoirgeology and fluids from seismic amplitudes. Upon completion of the course participants will understand:•he link between geologic processes and rock physics properties;•ore fluid / rock interactions during wave propagation;•pscaling and heterogeneous reservoirs;•ow to build their own rock physics template.•he ultimate goal is to improve the understanding of seismic amplitudesand predict geologic and reservoir parameters from seismicinversion data and at the same time create awareness aboutlimitations and pitfalls. •asic rock physics theory and relations;•luid and lithology substitution for reservoir rocks;•ore fluid —ock interactions during wave propagation;•ow to build a Rock Physics template;•pscaling and seismic signatures of heterogeneous reservoirs;•ntroduction to shale and carbonate rock physics. The course is intended for geophysicists, geologists and petrophysicistswho wish to be involved in quantitative seismic interpretation.The course will focus on how rock physics can be used in explorationbut many aspects will also be relevant for production and 4D geophysics. Fundamental understanding of physics and mathematics. Educationalbackground and/or practical experience in geology, geophysicsand/or
Reservoir CharacterizationRock PhysicsRock Physics and Computational Geophysics
By Dr José Carcione (OGS, Italy)
José Carcioneanisotropy attenuation borehole geophysics electromagnetism environmental geophysics hydrocarbon exploration poroelasticity synthetic seismograms viscoelasticity wave simulationThis course presents the fundamentals of the physical principlesand computational techniques for wave propagation in anisotropic,anelastic and porous media, including the analogy between acousticwaves (in the general sense) and electromagnetic (EM) waves. Theemphasis is on geophysical applications for hydrocarbon exploration,but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock physics,and material science, -- including many branches of acousticsof fluids and solids (acoustics of materials, non-destructive testing,etc.) -- may also find the material useful. The course illustrates theuse of seismic and EM modeling, with an account of the numericalalgorithms for computing synthetic seismograms, diffusion fields andradargrams, with applications in the field of geophysical prospecting,seismology and rock physics, such as evaluation of methane hydratecontent, upscaling techniques, detection of overpressure, Antarcticand permafrost exploration, exploration of the Earth’ deep crust,time-lapse for monitoring of CO2 injection, seismic modeling in geothermalfields, seismic inversion, etc. On completion of the course, participants will be able to:•nderstand the physics of seismic (and EM) wave propagationand diffusion fields in real media, such as rocks and geologicalformations;•olve complex problems using numerical methods, as finite-differences,Fourier techniques, and machine learning methods;•pply these concepts to seismic and EM applications, such ashydrocarbon prospection, earthquakes, surface radar applications,EM low-frequency methods for environmental problems, rockphysics, etc. Methods:•echanical viscoelastics models•he wave equation with attenuation•eismic anisotropy•eismic attenuation•oroelasticity•eismic rock physics•ooke’ law and wave equation•orward modeling. Computation of synthetic seismograms•eflection coefficients. AVO•M rock physics•axwell’ equation•he seismic-EM analogy•eo-radar equations•he diffusion equation in EM prospecting•achine learning methods. Neural networks, genetic algorithms,etc.Applications :•luid flow in porous rocks•nconventional resources. Oil and gas shales•ross-well seismic and EM methods•pscaling methods•VO cases•ock-physics templates• and velocity anisotropy in fractured media•eophone-soil coupling models•hysics and simulation of waves at the ocean bottom•ecent advances to model waves in reservoir and source rocks•heory, simulation and case histories for detection and quantificationof gas hydrates•heories for pore-pressure prediction and mud-weight design,with case histories•eismic-modeling case histories•eismic inversion•icroseismicity•orehole waves•njection of fluids and seismic and EM monitoring. Time-lapsecases•ools for GPR applications. The course is useful for geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists andreservoir engineers. The emphasis is on geophysical applications forhydrocarbon exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquakeseismology, rock acoustics and material science –ncluding manybranches of acoustics of fluids and solids (acoustics of materials,nondestructive testing, etc.) –ay also find this course useful. Participants should have knowledge of the basic concepts of
Reservoir CharacterizationRock PhysicsModern Seismic Reservoir Characterization
By Dr Leon Thomsen (Delta Geophysics, United States)
Leon Thomsenanisotropy avo elasticity fluid fractures geomechanics gassmann impedance interpretation lithology pore pressure porosity rock physics shaleClassical reservoir characterization typically assumes that the reservoiris elastically and hydraulically isotropic, and may be adequatelyanalyzed using core and/or log data. However, most real reservoirsare elastically and hydraulically anisotropic, and spatially heterogeneous(on many scales), so that core and/or log data are notrepresentative of the larger reservoir volume. This applies to bothconventional and unconventional reservoirs. Hence, the best meansto physically characterize most real reservoirs, throughout theirvolume, uses seismic data, acquired and interpreted anisotropically.This course summarizes the state-of-the-art of seismic reservoircharacterization, using anisotropic seismic rock physics. The coursenormally requires 16 hours of instruction, and includes numerousclassroom exercises. Topics include:•ontext: A world with excess supply of oil, and low demand. Theshale revolution. Hubbert’ extended Peak.•hysical principles: Aliased data. Inhomogeneous formations.Friendly multiples. Spatial resolution•ntroduction to Anisotropy: Weak. Polar. Azimuthal. Shear wavesplitting.•ithology: Shale content from anisotropy itself.•eomechanics: Without Poisson’ ratio or Young’ modulus, sincethese are isotropic concepts.•luids: Logical error in Gassmann poroelasticity.•ore pressure: Subsurface fluid compartments. Anisotropicvelocities for calibration.•nisotropic AVO: Including the anisotropic term in the AVOgradient, a first-order effect!•ractures: No penny-shaped cracks. Multiple fracture-sets.•ermeability: 4D gives the best seismic measure. Impermeablebarriers. Upon completion of this course, participants will:•ealize that many of the assumptions of conventional reservoircharacterization do not apply to the Real World•nderstand the basic elements of anisotropic seismics•e able to implement that understanding to estimate lithology,pore pressure fractures, and permeability from seismic data, withappropriate caveats•e able to apply post-Gassmann fluids estimation•e able to forward-model anisotropic AVO, and to find themissing parameter from the data. ContextThe Shale RevolutionHubbert’ Extended PeakThe geophysical response: subsurface physical characterizationPhysical principlesRequirement for, and limitations of seismic dataEquation of motion vs wave equationFriendly multiplesExercise: Thin layersAnisotropyWeak polar anisotropy parametersExercise: Plane-wave velocitiesP-waves: normal moveout; abnormal moveoutAzimuthal anisotropyLithologyShale content from anisotropyGeomechanicsCompliance vs stiffnessYoung’ modulus, Poisson’ ratio, bulk modulusExercise: geomechanics moduliFluidsBiot, GassmannBiot vs GassmannBrown and KorringaDetermining the parametersExercise: Post-Gassmann fluid dependenceEffective mediaFluid effects on anisotropic formationsExercise: Thin-layer fluid dependencePore pressureSubsurface fluid compartmentsEffect of anisotropy on pore pressure estimationAnisotropic AVOEffect of polar anisotropy on AVO gradientExercise: Anisotropic AVODetermining the parameterEffect of azimuthal anisotropy on AVO gradientCracks and fracturesCrack formation by unequal stressesMicrofractures and macro jointsEffects of cracks on velocitiesShear wave splittingExercise: 2Cx2C rotationPermeabilityPermeability tensorCleating in CoalBed MethaneFractures in the Austin Chalk4D permeability in the North Sea This course is designed for geophysicists with five or more years ofprofessional experience, whose management expects them to gobeyond subsurface imaging to physically characterize subsurfacereservoirs. Their conventional tools for doing that are based ondemonstrably false assumptions. This course will help them to usetheir experience in modern ways to address the same challenges. This course is designed for geophysicists with five or more years ofprofessional experience, whose management expects them to gobeyond subsurface imaging to physically characterize subsurfacereservoirs. Their conventional tools for doing that are based ondemonstrably false assumptions. This course will help them to usetheir experience in modern ways to address the same
Reservoir CharacterizationGeomechanicsGeophysics Under Stress: Geomechanical Applications of Seismic and Borehole Acoustic Waves
By Dr Colin Sayers (Schlumberger, United States)
Colin Sayersanisotropy drilling elasticity fractures monitoring pore pressure production rock physics sand shaleThe state of stress within the earth has a profound effect on thepropagation of seismic and borehole acoustic waves, which leads tomany important applications of elastic waves for solving problems inpetroleum geomechanics. The purpose of this course is to provide anoverview of the sensitivity of elastic waves in the earth to the in-situstress, pore pressure and anisotropy of the rock fabric resulting fromthe depositional and stress history of the rock and to introduce someof the applications of this sensitivity. The course will provide the basisfor applying geophysics and rock physics solutions to geomechanicalchallenges in exploration, drilling and production. A variety ofapplications and real data examples will be presented and particularemphasis will be placed on the rock physics basis underlying the useof geophysical data for solving geomechanical problems. Upon completion of the course, participants will have an understandingof the sensitivity of elastic waves in the earth to mineralogy,porosity, pore shapes, pore fluids, pore pressures, stresses and theanisotropy of the rock fabric resulting from the depositional andstress history of the rock and how to use this understanding inquantitative interpretation of seismic data and in the construction ofmechanical earth models. The following topics will be addressed in the course:•ntroduction to the effects of stress in the earth. Why pore pressure,in-situ stress and geomechanical properties are important.•ediment compaction and the state of stress in the earth. Verticalstress, pore pressure and sediment compaction. Horizontal stressin a relaxed basin. Estimation of the minimum and the maximumhorizontal stress. Tectonic strains.•ore pressure. Velocity vs. effective stress relations. Pore pressureestimation from velocity. Clay diagenesis. Unloading. The need forfit-for-purpose seismic velocities. Uncertainty analysis. Combiningseismic velocities with well velocities for improved pore pressureestimation. Dipping layers and lateral pore pressure transfer.•tress sensitivity of sandstones. Third-order elasticity theory. Dependenceof elastic wave velocities on porosity in sandstones.The importance of compliant grain boundaries, microcracks andfractures on velocities in sandstones. The use of elastic waves tomonitor stress-induced damage.•ellbore stability and wave velocities near a borehole. Stresschanges in the vicinity of a borehole. Mechanical behavior of rockin the vicinity of a borehole. Stress dependence of elastic wavevelocities. Linearized expressions for the change in velocity forsmall changes in stress.•eservoir geomechanics and 4D seismic monitoring. Reservoirstress path. The effect of stress path on rock deformation andfailure. Rock failure. Monitoring reservoir stress changes usingtime-lapse seismic. The difference in reservoir stress path betweeninjection and depletion.•ractured reservoirs. Effects of fractures on seismic waves. Multiplefracture sets. Amplitude Versus Offset and Azimuth (AVOA). Simplificationsfor weak anisotropy. Effects of inequality between thenormal and shear compliance of fractures. Microstructural modelsof fracture compliance.•he seismic anisotropy of shales. The relation of shale anisotropyto microstructure. The effect of interparticle regions on seismicanisotropy. Clay mineral anisotropy. Effect of disorder in the orientationof clay particles. The static elastic moduli for a TI mediumand the implications for hydraulic fracture containment. The integrated nature of this course means that it is suitable forindividuals from all subsurface disciplines including geophysics, geomechanics,rock physics, petrophysics, geology, geomodelling anddrilling and reservoir and petroleum engineering. The short-coursepresentation, limited to one-day, will provide an overview of the basicconcepts and applications and minimizes the use of mathematicaldevelopments. As a result, the course presentation does not requirea theoretical background and can be attended by a broad section ofworking geoscientists and engineers interested in applying geophysicaldata to the solution of geomechanical problems. The course bookwill provide support for the lecture and further extend some of themore technical considerations. Participants should have a basic knowledge of geology, geophysicsand
Reservoir CharacterizationGeomechanicsApplied Oilfield Geomechanics
By Dr Jorg Herwanger (MP Geomechanics, United Kingdom)
Jorg Herwanger4d seismic calibration displacement fault re-activation mechanical properties mud weight pore pressure strain stress wellbore stability3D geomechanical models are frequently used to assess the stateof stress inside the Earth. Knowledge of the stress-state in a reservoirand the surrounding rock allows assessing the risk of reservoircompaction, wellbore failure, sanding, breach of seal integrity andfault re-activation amongst others. Three-dimensional seismic dataand inversion models can be used in building geomechanical modelsand time-lapse (4D) seismic data provide a means of calibrating thedynamic behaviour of reservoir geomechanical models. The purposeof this course is to provide an overview of currently available workflowsto build and run calibrated 3D and 4D geomechanical models,maximizing the use of seismic data.By attending the course, participants will deepen their insight intoeach of the elements that comprise a 3D and 4D geomechanicalmodel. Special attention is given to the way that seismic data assistin the process, what other data sources are required, how to calibrategeomechanical models and finally, how to interpret geomechanicalmodels for a range of applications. The purpose of this course is to:1. Provide an overview of the currently available techniques of buildingand calibrating 3D and 4D geomechanical models;2. Demonstrate the interaction between rock properties, pore pressureand stress state;3. Apply the knowledge of stress state from geomechanical modelsto field development and reservoir management;4. Understand the limitations of current workflows and techniquesand give a glimpse of the road ahead. •ntroduction: Applications of geomechanics in the oilfield life-cycle;•ock mechanical properties:- Elastic and strength properties;- How do you derive mechanical properties in practice.•tress and strain tensors:- Workflow for building 3D and 4D geomechanical models;- Calibration of 3D geomechanical models using well-centric 1Dgeomechanical models;- Analysis and display of displacement vectors, strain tensors andstress tensors.•ase studies:- Building a 3D geomechanical model using seismic AVO inversionin an onshore tight gas reservoir;- Geomechanical controls on hydraulic stimulation;- Wellbore stability for inclined wells: Why inclined and horizontalwells behave differently from vertical wells;- Multiple uses of 3D and 4D geomechanical flow models: Applicationsin a deepwater carbonate and clastic fields;- Stress rotations during production and their impact on hydraulicstimulation. Geomechanics projects integrate data and models from many differentsubsurface disciplines, including geophysics, rock mechanicstesting, geology, geomodelling, rock physics and reservoir engineering.The course is designed for practising geoscientists and engineersand demonstrates how their discipline knowledge contributes togeomechanical modeling.The course is also beneficial to students of petroleum geoscience(geophysics and geology). Finally, the course also appeals to managersof subsurface teams, increasing the appreciation of the complexityof the subsurface workflows that his or her team needs to address. This course is aimed at geoscientists and engineers with an interestin geomechanics, be their background in geology, geophysics,rock physics, reservoir engineering or geomechanics. The coursewas developed mainly with a practicing geophysicist or geologist inmind. The course has an emphasis on making the physics behind thepresented techniques accessible and clear and will appeal to curiousand inquisitive people. This course is also suited for Master’ and PhDstudents as the course (material) is designed in such a way that theprinciples of geomechanics become clear.Geomechanics is still a relatively new discipline in the oilfield environmentand is not taught as part of most university Geoscience-programs.Therefore a lot of graphic examples are included in the coursematerial to aid intuitive
Reservoir CharacterizationGeomechanicsOilfield Geomechanics: Application to Drilling, Completions, Reservoir, Production, Geology and Geophysics
By Dr David Wiprut (Baker Hughes United States)
David Wiprutcompaction fault reactivation faults fluid flow fractures hydraulic fracturing in-situ stress pore pressure production prediction rock deformation rock mechanics rock strength sand production prediction subsidence uncertainties wellbore stabilityStress and pressure act on every reservoir, wellbore and completion.The process of drilling, production and injection will modify stressesand pressures, sometimes to the extent that the risks for failuresin and around the producing wells or even at the surface increaseconsiderably. Geomechanics is the study of the interaction betweencurrent-day stresses and pre-existing structures and lithologies. By understandinghow stresses and rock properties interact, a large numberof oilfield problems and operations can be addressed and optimized,including wellbore instability, sand production, fault reactivations,fracture permeability, pore pressure prediction, casing collapse andshear, compaction and subsidence, hydraulic fracturing, and more.This course provides participants with a solid understanding of rockmechanics, rock mechanical properties, and the associated laboratorymeasurements and procedures used to determine these properties.Additionally, participants will learn how stresses and pressures inthe earth are measured and constrained, through various tools andtechniques of analysis. The participants will understand the risks formechanical rock failure during drilling and field development, theimplications of these failures over the life of the well and field, andhow these can be managed and mitigated.The course is operationally focused and designed to provide an understandingof how drilling and operating costs can be lowered, risksand uncertainties reduced, productivity increased, field developmentstrategies optimized, well planning supported, and safety improvedin conventional and unconventional reservoirs.With 18 exercises, in-chapter and end-of-chapter class discussionquestions, and hands-on demonstrations, this industry-leading classhelps to ensure the participants are ready to identify the geomechanicalrisks hiding in every field.The training course will provide course participants with a detailedunderstanding of geomechanical modeling and model applications.They will learn about:•ock deformation and mechanics•ock failure and rock strength•etermination of the in-situ stresses•ore pressure prediction•ellbore stability•and production prediction•asing collapse and shear•ractures, faults, and fluid flow•ydraulic fracturing•ompaction and subsidence Course participants will:•alculate stresses, pressures, and rock properties•alculate when faults will slip and determine the consequencesof slip•alculate stress concentrations around wellbores drilled inprincipal stress directions•un a quick-look sand production prediction calculation•ain a better understanding of their future reservoir challengesand how geomechanics affects their well planning and reservoirdecisions. Day 1: Overview Basic constitutive laws•ock failure•ore pressure•he tectonic stress field - basic principles•-situ stress determinationDay 2: In-situ stress determination•uilding a geomechanical model - data inputs•ellbore stability•racture pressureDay 3: Geomechanics applied to completions engineering•and production prediction•asing collapse and shear Geomechanics for geology & geophysicsapplications•ractures and faults in three dimensions•racture permeability•ault leakage•eomechanics applied to reservoir engineering•ater floods and hydraulic fracturing•roduction effects - compaction and normal faulting in reservoirs This is a intermediate course for anybody interested or involved insubsurface oilfield operations. Anyone impacted by rock failures,from beginning engineers to highly experienced supervisors andmanagers, can benefit from understanding geomechanics. Knowledge of oilfield operations and practices is desirable, but
Reservoir CharacterizationGeomechanicsSeismic Geomechanics: How to Build and Calibrate Geomechanical Models using 3D and 4D Seismic Data
By Dr Jorg Herwanger (MP Geomechanics, United Kingdom)
Jorg Herwangergeomechanics petrophysics cross disciplineThree-dimensional geomechanical models are becoming more frequentlyused to assess the state of stress inside the Earth. Knowledgeof the stress-state in a reservoir and the surrounding rock allowsassessing the risk of reservoir compaction, wellbore failure, sanding,breach of seal integrity, fault re-activation and allows the design ofmitigation for these issues. Three-dimensional seismic data and inversionmodels can be used in building geomechanical models and time-lapse (4D) seismic data provide a means of calibrating the dynamicbehavior of reservoir geomechanical models. The purpose of thiscourse is to provide an overview of currently available workflows tobuild and run calibrated reservoir geomechanical models maximizingthe use of 3D and 4D seismic data. Rock-physics, relating the stateof stress in the Earth and the propagation velocity of seismic waves,forms the link between seismic observations and the geomechanicalmodel, and this link will be discussed both from experimental dataand from a theoretical viewpoint. Attendees will learn how a combinationof 3D geomechanical models, coupled to flow models, builtand calibrated with 3D and 4D seismic data help in creating a deepunderstanding of the reservoir depletion processes and the state ofstress in the reservoir and surrounding rock. The purpose of this course is to:•rovide an overview over currently available workflows to build,run and calibrate reservoir geomechanical models maximizing theuse of 3D and 4D seismic data;•pply the understanding gained from running such workflows tofield development and reservoir management;•nderstand the limitations of current workflows and techniquesand give a glimpse of the road ahead. The course addresses the following issues:•ield observations of geomechanically induced time-lapse seismicsignals. Where do they occur and why?•uilding a 3D geomechanical model. Demonstrating a seismic-tosimulation workflow, including building a framework model tosurface and property population from seismically derived properties.•unning coupled modeling of a reservoir simulation model and ageomechanical model. Non-linear stress-strain relationship, reservoircompaction, failure models, stress and strain tensors.•ock-physics for elastic and inelastic deformation. Velocity-stressrelationship for elastic and inelastic deformation. Velocity duringloading and unloading. Stress-induced velocity anisotropy.•ime-lapse seismic observations. Time-lapse time-shifts, AVO attributes,shear-wave splitting.•ase-study of integrating flow model, geomechanical model andtime-lapse observations. The integrated nature of the subject and approach makes this courseappealing to practitioners and researchers from a wide range ofsubsurface disciplines, ranging from geophysics, geomechanics, geomodelling,geology, rock physics and reservoir engineering. Practisinggeoscientists and engineers will appreciate the inter-disciplinaryapproach to addressing reservoir management issues and shouldbe able to use ideas and approaches taught in this course in theirday-to-day work. The course draws heavily on field observations andexamples, while limiting the use of mathematical developments. Thismakes the course appealing to a wide cross-section of geoscientistsand engineers that are interested in the inter-related nature of thesubsurface disciplines. It should also be appealing to managers ofcross-disciplinary subsurface teams, increasing the appreciation ofthe complexity of the subsurface workflows that his or her teamneeds to address. This course is aimed at geoscientists and engineers with an interest inintegration between the different subsurface disciplines. The coursepresents both currently available seismic-to-simulation techniques. Thecourse has an emphasis on making the physics behind the presentedtechniques accessible and clear and will appeal to curious and inquisitivepeople. This course is also suited for Master’ and PhD studentsas the course (material) is designed in such a way that the principlesof geomechanics become clear. Geomechanics is still a relatively newdiscipline in the oilfield environment and is not taught as part of mostuniversity Geoscience-programs. Therefore a lot of graphic examplesto aid intuitive understanding are included in the course
Reservoir CharacterizationGeochemistryPetroleum Fluids and Source Rocks in E&P Projects
By Prof. Dr Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, United States)
Alexei Milkovfluid geochemistry isotope analysis kerogen oil and gas shale unconventionalThe course enables participants to interpret fluids and source rockdata to add value to E&P projects from exploration to environmentalremediation. Examples and case studies come from both conventionaland unconventional petroleum systems around the world. Thelearning objectives are achieved through well-illustrated lectures,numerous hands-on exercises and active class discussions.We will cover the following topics:•undamentals of petroleum composition and properties;•ampling of rocks and fluids;•nalytical techniques used to evaluate potential of source rocksand composition of petroleum fluids;•haracterization and risking of source rocks and prediction of fluidproperties in exploration prospects;•nterpretation of data from drilled exploration wells to assess thevalue of the discovery;•se of geochemical data to assess reservoir compartmentalizationduring appraisal and development;•eochemical surveillance of oil & gas production;•se of geochemical data to locate producing intervals and allocatepetroleum production;•dentification of oil sources for petroleum spills and leaks. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:Identify and propose geochemical solutions for E&P business problems;•esign cost-effective fit-for-purpose sampling/analysis programsfor source rocks and petroleum fluids;•onstruct expulsion profiles for different types of source rocks;•redict fluid properties and product value in exploration and productionwells;•orrelate oils to source rocks;•nterpret the origin of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon naturalgases;I•tegrate geochemical interpretations into holistic petroleum systemsanalysis; Day 1. Fundamentals of petroleum geochemistry. Sampling andanalytical techniquesThe first day introduces the participants to petroleum geochemistry.You will learn the composition of natural gases and oils and how tointerpret gas and oil data. This will be followed by the discussion ofsampling and analytical techniques for source rocks and petroleumfluids.•elcome and introductions;•etroleum composition and phases;•nterpretation of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon natural gases(molecular composition and isotopes);•nterpretation of oils (from bulk parameters to biomarkers);•ost-accumulation processes (biodegradation, thermal sulfatereduction, water-washing etc.);•ampling techniques (surface, drilling, production);•nalytical techniques (Rock-Eval, gas chromatography (GC),mass-spectrometry (GC/MS)).Day 1 exercises: several short interpretation assignments followed bythe major exercise on matching oil samples with whole oil GC traces.Day 2. Petroleum exploration and drilling the prospectThe second day starts with the discussion of source rocks. Participantswill interpret the quality and the potential of source rocks and willmodel petroleum expulsion. This will be followed by the discussion ofexploration drilling and the data necessary to interpret the outcomesof exploration projects.•ource rock presence, maturity and potential;•xpulsion from various organofacies;•rediction of fluid properties in exploration projects;•D burial history and maturity;•luids and pressure;•etroleum seeps;•il-source correlations.Day 2 exercises: mapping and interpreting source rocks; buildingexpulsion profiles for various source rocks; constructing pressureprofiles in subsurface; oil-source correlation.Day 3. Appraisal, development, production, environmental anddownstream projectsThe third day focuses on the integration of petroleum geochemicaldata with other subsurface datasets to assist in appraisal, developmentand production of petroleum reservoirs. This will be followedby the discussion of petroleum spills and leaks. We will finish thecourse by studying how understanding of source rocks and petroleumfluids help create value in downstream projects.•eservoir compartmentalization;•ime-lapse geochemistry (surveillance);•roduction allocation;•etroleum spills and leaks;•il value;•as value.Day 3 exercises: unravelling compartmentalization of a reservoir;determining sources of oils collected after a major offshore spill. The course is designed for geoscientists, engineers and managerswho work on exploration, appraisal, development, production andenvironmental projects and require competency in petroleum fluidsand source
Reservoir CharacterizationGeochemistryInterpretation of Natural Gases
By Prof. Dr Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, United States)
Alexei Milkovgeochemistry isotope analysis oil and gas shale unconventionalThis course enables participants to add value in E&P projects throughinterpretation of natural gases. Examples and case studies come fromboth conventional and unconventional petroleum systems aroundthe world. The instructor will transfer his practical knowledge of mostimportant and relevant theories, interpretation tools and applicationsused in the industry. The learning objectives are achieved throughwell-illustrated lectures, numerous hands-on exercises, active classdiscussions and competitive games.We will cover the following topics:•undamentals of natural gas composition and properties;•ampling of natural gas during drilling and production;•nalytical techniques used to determine molecular and isotopiccomposition of natural gases;•nterpretation of hydrocarbon gases (origin and processes);•nterpretation and prediction of non-hydrocarbon gases (CO2, N2,H2S, He and others);•sing gas data and models to solve business problems in exploration,appraisal/development, production and environmentalprojects. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•esign cost-effective fit-for-purpose sampling/analysis programsfor natural gases;•valuate molecular and isotopic composition of hydrocarbon gasesand interpret their origin (primary microbial, secondary microbial,thermogenic, abiotic) using state-of-the-art genetic diagrams;•nterpret the source, maturity, mixing and post-accumulation alterationsof hydrocarbon gases;•nterpret the origin and sources of non-hydrocarbon gases (carbondioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, helium and others);•se gas data to solve business problems in exploration, appraisal/development, production and environmental projects;•dentify and propose geochemical solutions for E&P business problems. •undamentals of natural gas composition and properties;•ampling of natural gas during drilling and production;•nalytical techniques used to determine molecular and isotopiccomposition of natural gases;•nterpretation of hydrocarbon gases (origin and processes);•nterpretation and prediction of non-hydrocarbon gases (CO2, N2,H2S, He and others);•sing gas data and models to solve business problems in exploration,appraisal/development, production and environmentalprojects. The course is designed for geoscientists, engineers and managerswho work on exploration, appraisal, development, production andenvironmental projects and require competency in natural
Training & DevelopmentHuman ResourcesMitigating Bias, Blindness and Illusion in E&P Decision Making
By Marc Bond (Rose & Associates, United Kingdom) and Creties Jenkins (Rose & Associates, United States)
Marc Bond, Creties Jenkinsbias calibration decision making economics estimation heuristics intuition objectivity overconfidence planning post-appraisal uncertainty workflows riskDecisions in E&P ventures are affected by cognitive bias, perceptualblindness, and various forms of illusion which permeate our analyses,interpretations and decisions. This two-day course examines theinfluence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that canbe used to mitigate their impact.“ias”efers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgmentsare drawn in an illogical fashion. “lindness”s the conditionwhere we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. “llusion”efers to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.All three—ias, Blindness, and Illusion--can lead to poor decisionsregarding which work to undertake, what issues to focus on, andwhether to continue investing time, effort, and money in a given project.The course begins by examining how these cognitive errors affectus. Several different errors are discussed, including: Perceptual Blindness;Illusions of Potential, Knowledge and Objectivity; and Anchoring,Availability, Confirmation, Framing, Information, Overconfidence andMotivational Biases. Exercises, videos, and examples help illustratehow these manifest themselves in our daily activities and affect ourjudgment, often without us realizing it. We then focus on the oil andgas industry where drilling portfolios, production forecasts, resourceassessments, and other activities are regularly impacted. Techniquesare presented that can be used to mitigate cognitive errors and examplesare shown where these techniques have worked.A key element of the course are the mitigation exercises which giveparticipants a chance to apply what’ been learned to real-life situations.For example, what elements of the “nchoring bias”ed tothe belief that the exploration potential of a prospect offshore Brazilwas much greater than it turned out to be? Or, what elements ofthe “onfirmation bias”ed to a decision regarding which analogousdata should be used to predict the outcome of a new drilling project?The second day includes a series of exploration and appraisal casestudies resulting in both positive and negative outcomes. Participantsare asked to identify cognitive errors contributing to the project results,and which of these had the greatest impact. This is followed bya 3-hour, real-world exercise using project data to give participantspractice in addressing cognitive errors. The exercise requires participantsto list all of their assumptions followed by a list of the contraryassumptions. This is followed by an assessment of the impacts if thecontrary assumptions are true, and what key types of data / analyseswill be required to determine which set of assumptions are correct.Finally, the participants identify cognitive errors leading to the actualproject outcome.The course concludes by presenting a summary ‘oolkit’ith mitigationtechniques that can immediately be applied to project workand decisions. This includes a laminated card listing the various typesof bias, blindness and illusion on one side, and the six key steps tomitigate these cognitive errors on the flip side. This helps participantsimmediately apply the concepts to their daily work. Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:•dentify the influence of Bias, Blindness and Illusion on their analyses,interpretations and decisions;•pply techniques that will mitigate the impact of these in theirproject work and decision-making;•nsure that their behavior does not unwittingly reinforce thesecognitive errors in others. 1. Introduction (1 hour)2. Blindness and Illusion (3 hours)a. Perceptual Blindnessb. Illusion of Knowledge, Potential, and Objectivity3. Bias (4 hours)a. Anchoring, Availability, Confirmation, Framing, Information,and Overconfidence Biasb. Motivational Bias4. Case Studies--an appropriate subset of these will be chosen (2hours)a. Plio-Pleistocene Sandstone (Exploration Well)b. Cambrian Sandstone (Field Appraisal)c. Pliocene Sandstone (Exploration ‘rill or Drop’d. Jurassic Sandstone (Exploration License Round)e. Cretaceous Shale (Field Appraisal)f. Cambrian Sandstone (Field Appraisal)5. Real-World Exercise--one of these will be chosen (3 hours)a. Triassic sandstone, structural play (Exploration Well)b. Fractured carbonate, waterflood potential (Field Appraisal)6. Summary ‘oolkit’1 hour) This course is designed to have broad appeal to all levels and disciplineswithin an organization: junior to senior level geoscientists,junior to senior level engineers, analysts, landmen, HSE, HR, etc. Andmid-level to senior managers and


Siddharth Misra


Prof Dr Siddharth Misra’s research focuses on improving subsurface characterization and prospect evaluation for the exploration of hydrocarbons, minerals and water resources.

His major contribution is in the theory of electromagnetic responses of geological formations to various charge polarization phenomena. The theory has enabled him to introduce a multi-frequency electromagnetic log-inversion technique to remove dielectric effects for improved estimation of hydrocarbon pore volume.


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